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It's almost Impossible For Me To Choose Favorites In Classical Music
  If you ask me "who is my favorite composer , my favorite conductor ,  pianist , violinist , opera singer , orchestra " ,  sorry , I just can't  choose 

from so many great ones , living and dead .  But this is a characteristic of mine ;  I'm hard pressed to tell you my favorite  book ,  magazine ,

newspaper , film , television program ,  food, drink ,  website , or what have you .  

   I've been listening to , reading about ,  studying  and performing classical music for nearly 5o years now, since I was  only about 13 years old . .

I've experienced so many  great composers , works ,  musicians , recordings  and live performances  it's virtually immpossible  to name my 

favorites . Of course , I like some composers , some works and some  musicians more than others , and dislike some ,  but it's like choosing  

the favorite among your children .  

   Of course , I love the great established masterpieces of the repertoire by  Bach ,Mozart, Beethoven ,  Wagner,  and other famous composers ,

but there's so much wonderful music  which is off the beaten path  by composers who are not household names .  Ever heard of  such

composers as Karol Szymanowski , Carl Nielsen ,  Hans Pfitzner,  Arnold Bax ,  Albert Roussel ,  Sergei Taneyev ,  Alberic Magnard ,

Jon Leifs ,  Wilhelm Stenhammar , Nikolai Myaskovsky , Charles Koechlin ,  George Whitefield Chadwick ,  Havergal Brian ,

Roberto Gerhard ,  Rued Langgaard ,  etc ? Probably not unless you're a real lover of classical music  with a lot of listening experience ,

but all of these wrote some terrific music that is well worth hearing . And this is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to  obscure

but interesting composers .  They come from countries as diverse as Denmark , America , England , Russia , Poland , Sweden and even  

Iceland  in the case of Jon Leifs .  And it's so easy to  get recordings of their music now , even though your chances of hearing their music live

are not  very great .  

    It's similar with recordings .  You can get the music of Beethoven , Bach, Mozart, Wagner, Tchaikovsky ,Debussy , Ravel  et  performed

by a galaxy of different conductors , orchestras , solists and singers  ranging  from the early 20 th century to  musicians of the present day .

   Take the  nine symphonies of Beethoven alone ; among the most important cornerstones of the classical canon .

The first complete recording of Beethoven's iconic fifth symphony was made by the Berlin Philharmonic  conducted by the once  

world famous Hungarian conductor Artur Nickisch  around  1914 , under the most primitive recording conditions . An acoustical

recording  made before electronic recordings .  It's a fascinating document .  Nickisch , one of the first superstar conductors , iived from

1855 to 1922 .  He was born less than  30 years after the death of Beethoven  in 1827 !   Since then ,  who knows how many  

conductors , famous and not so famous , have recorded the Beethoven symphonies, many in integral sets of all nine .  

Such legendary names as Toscanini , Bernstein , Stokowski ,  Karajan ,  Bruno Walter, Solti ,  Mengelberg ,  Klemperer , Carlos Kleiber ,

to name only a handful .  The young Venuzuelan conductor Gustavo Dudamel , born in 1981 , is one of the more recent ones .

    How do you choose a favorite when you've heard so many recordings of just one famous symphony ? It's not easy .

You will like some more than others , but for me it's virtually impossible . Many conductors have recorded these symphonies

on two or more occaisions .  The legendary Austrian maestro Herbert von Karajan  left no fewer than FOUR sets of all nine Beethoven 

symphonies ,  beginning  in the 1950s  with London's Philharmonia orchestra , not to be confused with the London Philharmonic ,  and   then

with the Berlin Philharmonic , which he led  for over 30 years .  The last set was in Digital sound  in the 1980s . He lived from  1908 to 1989 .

    If you're looking for recordings of the Beethoven symphonies , it's a daunting task if you're a beginner .   

   As there is no one right way to  perform a musical work, especially an immortal masterpiece , there are different approaches  , and fans and

critics debate  the virtues of different recordings endlessly .  Which is the best ?  Who has made THE definitive recordign of any of the  nine

Beethoven symphonies .  Well, there is no such thign as a "definitive " performance of any  masterpiece . Different conductors  have

changed their  approach to interpretation over the years .  

    Do you want a classic recording by  such greats as Toscanini and Furtwangler  made  between the  1930s  and 50s  in  dated  ,

less than high fidelity sound ,  or a more recent digital one  recorded with amazing  clarity and presence by  eminent living  maestros

such as   Daniel Barenboim, Riccardo Chailly , Bernard haitink and others .  You can also  hear  recordings  on  period instruments , with gut 

strings, simpler woodwind instruments , valveless horns and trumpets and old  fashioned tympany  made with  leather  rather than plastic .

    One thing is certain ;   comparisons  between different conductors and orchestras are fascinating .  On one extreme, you have  the

fast and furious recordings of   the legendary Arturo Toscanini  , so full of nervous energy , and on the other extreme , the   slow, majestic,

weighty  and deliberate  recordings  of  the legendary German conductor Otto Klemperer .  Which is right ? You decide , but   no one

has a monopoly on the right way  to conduct the Beethoven symphonies .  As Beethoven has been dead for  narly 200 years , we will  

bever know  which  ones he woudl or would not have liked .  But the arguments will never cease among different  listeners .

    But we should be greatful for  the existence of so many different  interpretations .  

Possibly you will have your favorites .  But I just can't decide .  I'd rather just enjoy the music than worry about my favorites .


Posted: May 04 2015, 10:12 PM by the horn | with no comments
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A Violinist Wins The Classical Music Lottery , Sort Of .
  You probably haven't heard of  Chinese-born American violinist Frank Hwang , but he's just won Classical Music's equivalent of the lottery ,

and one of the  most prestigious posts in the world of  the symphony orchestra .  He's just been appointed to be the next concertmaster, that is  

the   principal  violinist of the New York Philharmonic , oldest symphony orchestra in  America .

    He managed to beat out   many other  brilliantly gifted violinists from other  great orchestras to get this plum job ,  so it isn't as easy

as winning the lottery  through  blind luck .  He  got the job through a combination of   enormous talent and even more hard work  developing    

his  talent  from an early age, not to mention sheer luck .  But the   competition for such a  coveted  position is very much like the lottery in that

your  chances  

of getting such   a job if you're a violinist  are  pretty much astronomical  . It's   tough enough to get  a job as a  a section violinist in a great

orchestra  , or  a position in any section  , but  Frank Hwang   has achieved something which   very few classical musicians  will

ever  do  no matter how talented .  

    If you're interested to know how orchestral auditions  work , you can check a post I did  years ago  when I first  began my blog  here 

called  "How do you get a job in a symphony orchestra " ?  As a horn player  , I went through this harrowing ritual many times, including  

three auditions for the New York Philharmonic  myself  .   Believe me, it's not an experience for those who are faint-hearted !

     Hwang was born in China in 1978 but came to America with his family as a child , and was first taught the violin by his mother .

He went on to  study seriously  after initial lack of enthusiasm  , studied with  distinguished teachers , won many presitigious prizes 

and    appeared as a soloist with  many leading orchestras as well as playing recitals and   performing chamber music .  

   He became concertmaster of  the presitigious  Houston symphony , but when the  renowned violinist  Glenn Dicterow, who recently retired as

Philharmonic after  over 20 years  , he  manged to beat out many other superb   violinists for the job , and  spent several weeks as a guest

concertmaster   trying out  for the job .  This frequently happens  at auditions .  After winnowing out  many applicants ,  the  

finalists  are sometimes given a chance to  perform at actual concerts with the orchestra as a trial . 

    Music director  Alan Gilbert   , who will be leaving this post  in two years , made the final choice of Hwang for the job .  A committee of

  members of the orchestra  votes  on  candidates for any  position , but the music director always has the final say .

     So congratulations , Frank Hwang ! You have   enormous shoes to fill  , following in the footsteps of so many  outstanding  concertmasters

of the New York Philharmonic .  It's a great responsibility  being in the hot seat of   a great orchestra .  

    The concertmaster is   like the quarterback of a football team .  It's an incredibly tough and demanding job ,  and the pressure

is enormous  . The concermaster has to play   any given violin solo in  orchestral works  , and is responsible for crucial tasks such

as   regulating   the bowing  of the violins  and   being the liason between the  violins  and the conductor .  Sometimes  the

concertmaster plays    violin concertos  with the orchestra , or as a guest with other orchestras .  Glenn Dicterow did this often and with

the greatest distinction .  

    Being the concertmaster of the orchestra has certain perks , such as being the highest paid member of the orchestra , and  though

he won't make the same salary as  the quarterback of   an NFL  quarterback , he has a very steady  job and   will last much  lnger

on the   job than any football player on the job and  like the other members of the orchestra  , will get generous benefits  andd two months 

paud vacation !     Not too shabby !


Posted: Apr 08 2015, 10:30 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Happy 90th Birthday To The Great French Composer And Conductor Pierre Boulez !
  Today is the 90 th birthday of one of the most important and influential  classical musicians of  our time  , Pierre Boulez . It would be difficult to

overstate his  enormous impact on  classical music in the 20 th and early 21st centuries  , both as a composer and conductor , as well as a teacher ,

writer and theorist .  He is now  retired from conducting   and  composing  due to  failing eyesight and  physical frailty , but  the  entire vast 

world of classical music is celebrating his  birthday today . 

   Born in  Montbrison , France in 1925 , Boulez  studied  composition in  Paris with the  great  French  composer  Olivier Messiaen  at the

Paris conservatoire ,  and   became  known as  a composer of  rigorous  , highly complex  serial music  which    never pandered  to   

audiences  and    even   alienated many listeners  , as well as a champion  of   the  12 tone music of   the so-called "Second Viennese school " of 

Arnold Schoenberg , Anton Webern   and other  modern composers .  

   Boulez  became known as an Enfant Terrible of contemporary music ,   contemptuously dismissing  20 th century composers who did not meet

his    rigorous standards of  modernity , Shostakovich , for example and  once arrogantly declared that any living composer who did

not conform to   rigorous  atonal serialism  was  "irrelelvant" and "useless " , showing total disregard for  what concertgoers  expected  ,

as well as alienating many other prominent composers  . but he  continued to  produce   works which  gained  performances and  

earned the admiration of   such  musical giants as Igor Stravinsky .  Most have been works for  smallish ensembles of  diverse instruments ,

including  electronic instruments  ,  marimbas  and other  exotic  devices  , some with solo voices .  Three extremely difficult  piano sonatas ,

and  works with  such  strange titles as " The hammer without a master ",  "Pli Selon Pli " (fold on fold )  etc .

   He used the   texts of once  avant-garde French poets  for his vocal works and   these were reocrded  a mumber of times , sometimes under 

his direction .   Boulez did not originally intend to become a conductor , but felt the need to in order to   have  his intentions   best realized  .

    Boulez began to appear with  such great orchestras as  the  Cleveland orchestra ,  the London symphony and others , and in the 1970s

became principal conductor of Lndon's BBC symphony orchestra , which was sponsored by  the BBC  and  allowed him ample rehearsal  

time to achieve  performances of  the  greatest polish and precision .  He also began to conduct opera ,    appeared regularly at the
world famous Wagner festival  at Bayreuth  , leading the   controversial 1976 centennial production of Wagner's Ring  , which    brike with

traditional sets and costumes ,  and acclaimned  productions of   Berg's Wozzeck and Lulu at the Paris opera ,  and Debussy's Pelleas &

Melisande at London's Royal opera  .

   When Leonard Bernstein  stepped down as music director of the  New York  Philharmonic in 1969 ,  Boulez  took the orchestra over in  

1971 .  He was   exact opposite of the  the flamboyant , exuberant and  highly emotional  podium figure which Berbnstein was  ;

he  was   sober , restrained and   undemonstrative on the pppodium , and many  critics and listeners accused him of   being  a  coldly

analytic musician who  favored a totally cerebral  approach to  music making  .  But all acknowledged his enormous   technical  expertise  

and  fastidious attention to detail  .   

    The musicians of the New York Philharmonic  were  sometimes  exasperated by his  rigirous attention to detail in rehearsals and  insistence 

on  achieving  perfectly  in tune playing   , clarity of  texture , that is making sure that everything in a score can be clearly heard ,  which is far 

easy .  Particularly with  contemprary  works with their  enormous complexity .  

   Boulez   avoided  the   audience -pleasing  works of  Tchaikovsky , Rachmaninov and other Romantic era composers ,  with which he had no 

affinity and even  disdain for , concentrating on  music by Debussy , Ravel,  Schoenberg, Berg, Webern , Bartok, Stravinsky , Messiaen and 

20th century composers.  However , he did not  bar guest conductors  from  doing  the audience favorites .

   When he stepped down from the Philharmonic in  1977 , he moved to Paris , where  with the generous  funding of the  French government , 

he became director of a center for  avant garde music called  IRCAM  , the International center for experimentation in modern music ,  leading

musicians  who  specialized in new music as well   as experimenting with combining  electronic and acoustical instruments .  .

   Boulez maintained his relationships as guest conductor with   the Cleveland orchestra , the Chicago symphony ,  the Vienna Philharmonic

the  Berlin Philharmonic and    other great orchestras ,  but  his  activities as a conductor  limited his time to   compose .

     AS a composer ,  Boulez  began  using  Schoenberg's 12 tone techniques , but was determined to go beyond them  and achieve

even greater complexity  and  compositional rigor .  Shortly after Schoenberg's death in 1951 , he wrote  a notorious  article

called "Schoenberg is dead ", dismissing  the   great Austrian's music as no longer  sufficiently avant garde .   Music which  was once

considered outrageous in the early 20 th century was now old hat to him !

    If you are looking for  tunefulness in music , you will   never  be able to grasp  the music of Boulez .  But  it  rewards repeated listenings .

    He has also made numerous  recordings  as a conductor  for  Sony Classical  (formerly CBS  and Columbia records ) Deutsche Grammophon 

and other labels  of music by  Debussy, Ravel, Wagner,  Mahler , Schienberg ,  Webern , Bartok , Stravinsky ,Messiaen  and other  composers ,

including   operas by Wagner , Debuusy , Schienberg  ,  Berg  and  Bartok , many of which have  won awards , such as the Grammies .

   Boulez has served as a mentor to many  younger composers and conductors  who went on to achieve  world fame ; Daniel Barenboim ,  

for   example .  He is a giant of  modern music , as  uncompromising and forbidding as he may seem .  



Posted: Mar 26 2015, 03:28 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Does Classical Music Have a Diversity Problem ?
   According to conventional wisdom , the world of classical music is staid and set in its ways , and slow to change . There is some truth to this

accusation ,  but  things are still vastly different from  its past .  No longer is classical music   dominated by    white, preferably European males .  

There  are still plenty of them in the field, which is not necessarily a bad thing .  After all ,   dead white European  males  are pretty much  

what  brought  classical music into existence many centuries ago , and they have dominated the field as composers , conductors ,  

members of orchestras ,  instrumental soloists  etc .  
    But  in recent years ,  women  and  non-whites have been achieving   unprecendented prominence   in all the  fields  just mentioned . 

something which would have been unimaginable in the past .  Of course, there have been countless famous  and   beloved   female opera singers ,

as well as a fair number of  female  violinists , pianists , cellists etc .  However, there have been far more women composers   than most people

realize ,  but because of  sexism , they never achieved  the  public recognition  might have  gotten had they been male .  The sisters of  

both Mozart and Mendelssohn were  composers of  considerable talent ,  as well as  performers,  but  as women  things were  

against them .  Robert  Schumann's wife Clara was a renowned pianist who also composed , and some of her music has been recorded .  

   There are so many from the past who are now forgotten , but a surprising amount of their music has been recorded in recent years . 

But today , there are more women composer  before the public than ever before, and some of them have been widely performed .  

   Among them are  Sofia Gubaidullina of Russia , Kaaia Saariaho of Finland,  Judith Weir of England, and   Jennifer Higdon of America , to name 

only a few .  Now, it's not even news when an orchestra performs a work by a woman composer .  

   Until recently, the field of conducting was dominated bywhite  males  .  But more and more are starting to  appear with  the world's leading  

opera companies .  Marin Alsop  , a New York native and protege of  Leonard Bernstein , is the first woman to    be appointed as music director o
the Baltimore symphony , and has made recordings with them  and  achieved  considerable acclaim .  Australian  Simone Young served until

recently as music director of the Hamburg State opera , one of the most prestigious in Germany .  Susanna Malkki of Finland  is  rapidly  

achieving  international recognition  , and she has even been  touted as a long shot to become next music director of the New York Philharmonic 

when Alan  Gilbert steps down .  

   There are many others  , too many to  mention here .  50 years ago , there were very few women in  mosy of the world's top orchestras ,

but now there are plenty of them .  This began when orchestras adapted  blind auditions , with  candidates playing behind a screen , which they 

still use .

   Asian countries such as   Japan , China and  South Korea  have   been major players in classical music for many years .   Japanese conductor 

Seiji Ozawa turns 80 this year ,  Chinese superstar Lang Lang sells out audiences everywhere .  and  there are so many   others .

   Japanese , South Korean and Chinese musicians   are now common in  leading orchestras everywhere , as well as  Asian Americans /

   Young  and enormously gifted   Asian   aspiring  classical musicians  are now  filling  leading  music schools   all over America  , such as

Juilliard , the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia ,  and others .  They are actually a majority at Juilliard .  

   The renowned  Vienna Philharmonic , which  in order to preserve its traditional   sound  , has   always favored  native born  

Austrian  male musicians , has  been subject ot considerable criticism for failing to give women  and   Non-Austrians a chance   , has 

gradually begun  to   accept  some of these lately .  

    Unfortunately ,  African Americans still   make up only  about one percent of  American orchestras .  but this is not due to discrimination , but 

the fact that very few  African Americans have ever  aimed at  careers  in orchestras .  But no one is standing in  they way , and  

blind auditions  guarantee that they will not face discrimination .  There are no doubt  some  talented aspiring young  black  

instrumentalists  now , and there is no reason for  young blacks with talent  not to aim   for a career in them .  

   Opera is  the  field within classical which has produced  the most   African Americans  , and these include such legendary  

opera stars  as   Leontyne   Price , Marian Anderson , Grace Bumbry , Shirley Verret and others .to name only a few .  

Marian Anderson was the first balck  singer  to  star at the Metropolitan opera , as far back as the 1950s .

   The late Henry Lewis  was the first black conductor to appear at  the Metropolitan opera, and first  to  be music of a major  

US orchestra , the New Jersy symphony orchestra .  Marian Anderson's nephew  James De Priest , who passed  away last year ,

was an internationally acclaimed conductor who  appeared with  leading orchestras around the world  for decades . 

   Maybe the world of classical music is not quite as staid   as we've been led to believe by critics  and  commentators !


Posted: Mar 11 2015, 11:00 PM by the horn | with no comments
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The Latest News About Classical Music - Interesting Times Indeed !
  The old Chinese saying  "May you live in interesting times "  can be interpreted as a curse or something  not so negative .  These are certainly  

interesting times for classical music .  The Chinese pictogram  for  the word  crisis  consists of  the words danger and opportunity .  

   A crisis could  bring  good news as well as disaster  .  So here are some of the most important  recent stories  from the  anything but staid and boring

world of classical music .

   The billionaire  media moghul  David Geffen , who is said to be a lover of classical music , has  just donated  millions of dollars  to

Avery Fisher hall, home of the New York Philharmonic  in Lincoln  center  , to subsidize   renovation  of the  acoutically troubled   concert

hall  in the hopes   of improving  its acoustics .  This is scheduled to begin in  2019 , and   will force   America'soldest  symphony

orchestra to seek  temporary change of venue for its concerts .  No one is certain about this, but   the neighboring   David H. Koch

theater , former home of the defunct  NewYork City opera has been  proposed .  

   This is always a   dicey  move .  When   what used to be called  hilharmonic hall  , now Avery Fisher hall, opened in   1972   when the late, 

great Leonard Bernstein was music director  ,  it was considered  by all to b e an acoustical disaster .  The late  billionaire  businessman  

Avery Fisher donated money for a renovation in the mid 1970s , and   while there was definite improvement, the hall is still   

considered   to be far from the equal of  those in  Boston , Vienna and Amsterdam  , which are renowned for the way they   make

orchestras sound magnificent  .

   A new concert   in Paris has just opened  a few months ago , and   according to reports , the acoustics are excellent .  Building new

concert halls is always  a  crap shoot ;  there is no way to predict how good the acoustics will be .  For every acoustical  success in

recent years ,  many  duds have  opened .  

    London has no fewer than five  full time orchestras  , unlike New York which has  only its Pilharmonic  and  various part time ones .

But there have  been many complaints that  London , one of the world's greatest centers of classical music , does not have a single  

concert hall with  superlative acoustics , and  there are plans to build  a new one  which  will aim  to remedy this situation .  

   The acoustics of Carnegie hall  , which had  been the home of the New York   Philharmonics until the opening of  Lincold center

in the early 1960s   are considered  world class .

   The   renowned  English conductor  Sir Simon Rattle has been appointed to   become the next chief conductor of the London symphony  

orchestra in 2017  when Valery Gergiev steps down and takes over the Munich Philharmonic .  Rattle has been chief conductor of the Berlin  

Philharmonic since  2002  and   no definite  successor in Berlin has been decided on yet .  He has expressed hopes for   a first rate

new hall for London , and his  considerable influence seems to have worked .  
Posted: Mar 05 2015, 09:59 PM by the horn | with no comments
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So Classical Music Is "In Decline " Again . Ho Hum .
  If you go to facebook discussions , classical music forums, articles on the internet  and other  websites where classical music is discussed  and

argued about ,  something which I as a classical musician naturally do every day ,  you can't help notice  people who are  either  performers,

critics ,  scholars , teachers and   others who are merely knowledgable listeners  who are always longing  for the "good old days"

of classical music , centuries or merely decades ago , when  everything was so much better than the  present day ; I just encountered

several  in the past few days  . 

   If you believe these individuals ,  everything was so much better in the world of classical music long ago ;  most music was new , rather than

today's supposed concentration on music from the past, and a tiny fraction of it at that , when  conductors  were so much better than

those of today , ditto orchestras ,  violinists , cellists and other instrumental soloists , when   orchestras supposedly had "distinctive  sounnds"

rather than the way they supposedly "all sound alike" today , when  standards of opera singing were so much higher ,  and when   musicians   

didn't all perform the same music the same way and performers had   "real personality " and individuality ", as opposed to   the "cookie  

cutter" musicians of  today who are all so"  timid and pednatically literal ".  
    But in fact, there is no lack of new music today , and the classical repertoire is actually more DIVERSE than ever before .

   Longing for the "golden age" is  nothing new and can be found in all fields of human endeavor .  The ancient Romans  had a term for  

someone who is always  knocking the present  and longing for the "good old days ".  The    Laudator Temporis Acti",  or   one who  praises

bygone days .   Classical music has been full of these "laudators "  for  as long as I can remember reading  about it  ; books,  

magazine articles ,  etc , and now  the internet .  And I've been a classical music freak for nearly 50   years since I was a teenager !

   I recently read an interesting article by an English musicologist  which someone posted  on facebook the other day , claiming   that 

we   "don't perform classical music the right way " , based on  research ,  historical recordings ,  writings etc .  

   According to this  scholar ,  classical concerts have become  rigid and formalized ;  audiences were much more  relaxed  and casual at  

concerts , and  musicians  didn't care about  techincal perfection  and  avoided the pedantic literalism of interpretation which has become t

the norm today .  Cincerts were fun  and festive !   Musicians took risks and   took  interpretive liberties   which are frowned upon today .  

   I've read numerous articles like  in recent years . There may be some truth to it, but    based on my decades of listeing experience to  both 

recordings and live   performances, and  countless   reviews by critics in newspapers, magazines  and now the internet ,  as well  as  books,

maintain that reports of   the supposed  "pedantic literalism "  and "lack of individuality in interpretation " have been   greatly exaggerated . 

   Why ?   Because I've read countless   reviews of live performances and  recordings in my day in which   critics   mercilessly

lambasted   msuicians for all the liberties they took with the music . !

    Something just doesn't add up here .  There's a huge paradox, and a double standard .   If   musicians today are so "pedantically literal ",  

why have I read so many  negative reviews   in which the critics  accused them of  all manner of interpetive excesses , mannerisms  

and other  quirks which  they PRAISE in old recordings by legendary musicians of the past ?  

    The  legendary  piano virtuoso Vladimir Horowowitz, (1903-1989 ) for example, is extolled for his  interpetive flair, imagination ,  panache

and individuality . But one of today's most prominent  piano virtuosos,  Lang Lang of China ,  who      is perhaps

 the  most renowned    of today's classical pianists , is always  being sneered at for his alleged  "lack of seriousness and depth ,

superficial  technical display at the expense of   interpretive profundity  and   shameless  exhibitionism "  . Talk about a  double

standard .  Horowitz can do anything with the music he wants and critics rave  , but  Lang Lang  shows his own flair and   

individuality , and the critics   blast him  and refuse to acknowledge him as a serious musical  artist .   There are many,many

other examples of critics applying this double standard  with other musicians of the present day .

   Horowitz is held up as a paragon   of pianists  , yet   Lang Lang is cynically  used as an excuse to  make sweeping generalizations about  

how  standards of    musicianship have supposedly declined   from the idealized past .  

    There have been similar  brickbats   handed out to to the brillianitly gifted Venuzuelan-born conductor   Fustavo Dudmel,  now in his

early 30s like  Lang Lang , and who in the past decade or so has  risen quickly  into the foremost ranks of   today'  conductors 

and is now music director of the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic .  Dudamel is the most famous product of  Venuzuela's

now famous "El Sistema", which has  given so many poor youngsters in that  country  a chance to learn musical instuments and  

play in numerous youth orchestras .  

   Dudamel is  enormously gifted, charismatic ,  and   bursting with enthusiasm  . But he's no mere  flashy   podium glamor boy .

He's the genuine article ; a conductor  who has the  potential to become one of the greatest  conductors in a field where  conductors

often do not reach   until long past youth , and   elderly maestros who are still active are not at all uncommon .  

    But there has been plenty of   critical flack  , not necessarily nasty , but  dismissing him   as   possibly haven risen  to  

prominence before reaching maturity as a musician .  

    To be a prominet classical musician today often means being damned if you do and damned if you don't .   It's a no

win situation ,   because of   those annoying Laudators Temporis Acti , or however  the Latin plural  goes .   I don't think

I got the plural right, but you get my point .  

    But you can be sure that  decades from now, when  today's leading classical musicians  are either dead or   too elderly to  

perform any more,   people will be longing for the good old days of  Lang Lang and   Gustavo Dudamel, and their contemporaries 

of the present day . The more things change, the more they stay the same .

Posted: Feb 25 2015, 10:43 PM by the horn | with no comments
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The Metropolitan Opera Has Just Announced Its 2015 -16 Season - There's Lots To Look Forward To !
  The Metropolitan Opera's 2015 - 16 season  will  offer its usual  varied  operatic fare with the world's greatest singers , conductors  , directors

and designers .  The overall repertoire looks somewhat more conservative than usual , with no new or recent operas , but it's far  from

uninteresting .  There is less emphasis on 20th century operanext season than in the past several years also .  

   The veteran and beloved James Levine remains the Met's music director despite severe back trouble and other ailments which have 

sidelined him  for the past several years .  But the good news is that his health seems to have   improved considerably, even if he  is forced

to   use a motorized wheelchai  in order to conduct .  

    There will be six new productions  and a variety of  other  productions , some new this season .  Verdi's great  Otello , based  on  

Shakespeare's Othello will be the first new production and will open the season this September 21 st .  Many consider this to be  one of

the greatest of  Italian operas , and it's   gripping adaption of the Shakespeare play .  The Latvian tenor  Alexanders Antnenko will  sing

the  title role , and the brilliant young  French -Canadian  conductor Yannick Nezet-Seguin , currently music director of the Philadelphia 

orchestra , will conduct . 

   "Elektra" , a harrowing  tale of  the  vengeful  Greek   Greek princess Elektra , daughter of  King Agamemnon of Trojan war fame  , will be

a recent European-based  production by the late French opera director Patrick Chereau , and will be conducted by the renowned  

Finnish  conductor and composer Esa-Pekka Salonen, currently composer in residence at the New York Philharmonic .  The opera is not for the 

faint-hearted , but you'll never forget it !

   The 19th century French composer Georges Bizet is best known for his world famous opera   Carmen , but the Met is reviving  a much

less familiar opera of his after exactly 100 years !   It's "Les Pecheurs des Perles "  (The Pearl Fishers ), an exotic tale of love and rivalrly

set in what is now   Sri Lanka , formerly Ceylon .    Anyone who enjoys  Carmen should like this a lot .  

   "Roberto Devereaux " , by Gaetano Donizetti , is the completion of  the trilogy of  historical operas by the Italian composer

about Queen Elisabeth the first and her loves and rivalries .  The other two , which will also be in the Met repertoire next season ,

are "Anna Bolena" (Anne Boelyn) and "Maria Stuarda ", about Mary Stuart .  The late  ,great Beverly Sills gave acclaimed performances of

these  operas with the now unfortunately defunct New York City opera many years ago .    The operas play fast and loose with the  

historical facts but are so enjoyable  it doesn't matter .  

    Puccini's "Manon Lescaut  "  was   the composer's first  successful  opera , and is basically the same story  as the slightly earlier French 

opera by Jules Massenet called simply Manon .  It's the story of a naive young French girl from the provinces who meets a dashing but

impecunious young nobleman  while  on the way to a convent  and falls madly in love with him, with ultimately  fatal results .

Finally , there is a new production of the   strange and kinky opera "Lulu " by the Austrian composer  Alban Berg , a pupil of Schoenberg  .  

The music is 12-tone  but highly expressive . It's the bizarre story of an enigmatic young woman and Femme Fatale  wo marries  at least

three men in the course of the opera , each of whom dies in mysterious circumstances .  In the last act, which was left uncompleted

by Berg at his untimely death but fisished by another composer many years later from the sketches , Lulu has become a  prostitute

in London and is killed by none other than Jack the Ripper .  The opera is decadent fun  and qite approachable despite its atonality .

   Other  beoved operatic masterpieces in the repertoire next year will include Puccini's evergreen "La Boheme ",  the thundering  

melodrama "Tosca", and  the exotic "Turandot ", set in ancient China ,also by Puccini .  

   Verdi's  melodramatic "Il Trovatore ", hilariously pillaried by the Marx brother in the classic comedy "A Night at the Opera ",

and his sombre  tragedy  "Simon Boccanegra", set in medieval  Genoa  ,  will  return  .   Placido Domingo , ,who has lately been singing baritone

roles in his 70s , will portray the  doomed Doge of Genoa .

   Rossini;s  Scottish opera :La Donna Del Lago :(the lady of the lake)  which had its  Met premiere just last night , will return ,

as well as Donizetti's  charming bucolic   comedy "L'Elisir D'Amore " (The elixir of love ).

    Wagner's "Tannhauser " , the tale of  a medieval German troubador  caught between his chaste love of  a virtuous  young

noblewoman and the  wanton  erotic goddess Venus , who keeps a  lair in the German forest where she lures men , and goes off  

to Rome to seek forgivemess from the Pope, will  represent the German wing of the repertoire .  

    Even if you don't live anywhere near  New York city , you can still experience Met performances live  at movie theaters around the

country for much less than   a  good ticket would cost , as well as listen to the Saturday afternoon  radio broadcasts  which can be heard

all over America .  You can stream live performances on your computer, too  .  
   If you're planning to visit New York  and have  and have some free time ,  you can easily contact the Met's   website for information about tickets .  There are alos plenty of DVDs of Met performances  from the past available  .

   Attending a Met performance is a real treat !   There's absolutely nothing "stuffy or "elitist" about it .  You can dress casually  

and the audience   has no hoity-toity rich people dressed to the nines  attending for snobbish reasons .  The Met audience  is

made up of  people who are opera fans  who are just as passionate  about opera as sports fans are about their home team !

   And don't worry about foreign languages .  You'll find a device on the seat in front of you  with an English translation of the opera .

You can turn it off if you don't want it .  But I definitely recommend it if you're new to opera . 


Posted: Feb 18 2015, 10:59 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Youtube Is A Veritable Goldmine Of Classical Music !
   In addition to being a place where you can see videos about  news ,politics ,science,   religion  and virtually any subject in existence ,  as well as  
pop music , Rock music , Jazz and what have you ,  Youtube is a  fantastic way to  experience classical music in all its endless varity .

   You can hear recordings of music by virtually any composer  of any period or nationality , ranging from  ancient works written over four or

five   centuries ago to  recent works by contemporary composers .  It's all there   for you to experience at the click of a mouse !

   There are also live concerts and opera performances , or  individual  pieces from concerts and excerpts from live opera performances .

Just put the name of any composer or perfoming musician on the   youtube search engine and  you can  hear virtually anything you want !

   If you want to hear recordings by such legendary musicians as Leonard Bernstein ,  Luciano Pavarotti , , Maria Callas ,  Aerhur  

Runinstein , Vladimir Horowitz ,  Jascha Heifetz , Mstislav Rostropovich , Pablo Casals ,   Leopold Stokowski and others , their

recordings and in some cases live performances are right at your fingertips .

    You can also see   complete live performances of a wide variety of operas taken from such great opera houses as the Metropolitan opera ,

La Scala ,Milan, the Royal opera of  London , the Paris opera ,  the Berlin State opera , the Vienna State opera , the Bayreuth Wagner festival  

the Bavarian State opera in Munich , and elsewhere .  You can hear  legendary singers from the past such as Enrico Caruso ,  

Feodor Chaliapin ,  Rosa Ponselle ,  Kirsten Flagstad ,Lauritz Melchior and others sing arias and  other operatic excerpts on old recordings .

   You can also sinteresting documentaries on such great composers as Wagner, Verdi , Beethoven and others .  

Many of the world's greatest orchestras, such as the Berlin Philharmonic, the London symphony , the Royal concertgebouw orchestra of

Amsterdam , the Boston symphony and the New York Philharmonic  and others have their own youtube channels .

   Each video usually shows the performers of the recording , conductor, orchestra , record label etc, so if you hear a recording you  

really like , you can  get it from or other websites .  The sound may not be quite as good as on  a CD you purchase, ,

but it's good enough .

   Some of the classical music channels you can subscribe to on youtube are  Addio BelPassato ,  Composer Corner ,  Goodman Musica, Il 

Gruppo Di Docci , Unsung Masterworks ,  Classical Vault , 1 or 2 ,  IN Contrario Motu , to  name only a few .

   You can also e mail these performances to   anyone or send them to facebook or twitter .  If you register with youtube, you can leave

comments on any  video on the site unless  youssee the comments are closed sign . You will also receive replies to your comments .  

   Well, what are you waiting for ?  

Posted: Feb 16 2015, 10:59 PM by the horn | with no comments
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The Marginalization Of Classical Recordings At The Grammy Awards
  I didn't see last Sunday's Grammy Awards on television last Sunday as I was busy with other matters .  But as a classical musician I'm always

curious to  find out the winners in the classical recordings category .  Among these were a recent CD of  the atmospheric orchestral piece 

"City Noir "  , which  evokes the dark and seemy film noir underworld of  Los Angeles , with David Robertson and  the St Louis  

symphony , and "Become Ocean ,  " by John Luther Adams (no relation ) , which seeks to  portray a world   in which global warming has caused

sea levels to cover the earth , with Ludovic Morlot and the Seattle symphony .  

    The venerable if  highly controversial French  composer and conductor  Pierre Boulez, who turns 90 in March and who has won a number 

of Grammy awards , received a lifetime achievement award  for his  long and distinguished career .

   But unfortunately , these classical Grammy awards rceived short shrift   on television .  They apparently did not even appear  on the show

as they had  many times in the past and were announced  off air before the show .  The days when  the classical awards actually  

appeared on the show and were announced by  renowned classical musicians seem to be gone .  This appears to be  part of the  

overall marginalization of classical music in America .  Decades ago , renowned classical musicians such as Leonard Bernstein and others

actually appeared on the cover of  Time magazine ; today , this would be extremely unlikely .  
   How and why did this happen ?  There are no clear cut answers .  Those in charge in the Grammy awards  and television executives  

seem to think that classical music just doesn't sell in America .  Is there any way to reverse this  pernicious trend  and   make classical

music more visible to the overall public in America ?  Who knows ? But we've got to hope so .  


Posted: Feb 12 2015, 10:14 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Alan Gilbert To Step Down As Music Director Of The New York Philharmonic In 2017 .
   The world of classical music was stunned by a bombshell this morning when the New York Philharmonic announced that its current  music 

director Alan Gilbert  , 47  , will leave his prestigious but extremely demanding position as its music director at the end of the 2016-17 season .

    Gilbert began his tenure with the orchestra in 2009 ,  after  some years at the head of the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic in Sweden and  

the  Santa Fe  Summer opera festival in New Mexico , as well as conducting  many of  the foremost orchestras  of Europe and America as

guest .  

   The Juilliard trained Gilbert is the son of two violinists in the orchestra , his Japanese born mother still being a member .  He  came to

the orchestra  to succeed the late Lorin Maazel  , who passed away last year at the age of 84 .  Gilbert was something of a dark  horse  

in the search for a conductor to  take over after Maazel ;  he had already had a distinguished conducting career but was  not as high profile

as  many of the potential candidates .

   The Philharmonic  administration hoped he would bring   youthful brilliance and   innovative programming to the orchestra  , which had  

however already  played a wide variety of new music  under previous music directors and guest conductors  over the years .  

Gilbert proved to be a staunch champion of new music by a wide variety of contemporary composers  of varying nationalities and  

compositional styles ,  In addition , he championed works by lesser known but  outstanding composers .  

   Gilbert initiated bold projects such as a concert performance of  the phantasmagorical surrealistic opera "Le Grande Macabre ",  by the

late Hungarian composer  Gyorgy Ligeti and concerts of unusual repertoire at the Armory in Manhattan  .  There was also a  musical

Biennale  , a festival of contemporary music  comparable to the Biennales for art in Venice , to name only some of the  adventurous  

projects initiated by Gilbert .  Of course, the orchestra continued to perform the beloved staples of the orchestral repertoire by Haydn, Mozart,  

Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky  and Rachmaninov  et al .   But no one could accuse the orchestra of  sticking exclusively  to the

tried and true .  

    Critical reaction to  Gilbert's performances  has been  favorable on the whole, but  there  were always  musical snipers  who complained

about this or that ,  finding fault with his performances for this or that reason . This comes with the job in any major orchestra .

    Being music director of the New York Philharmonic is probably one of the most thankless jobs in classical music .  

Eminent conductors such as Leonard Bernstein , Pierre Boulez ,  Zubin Mehta,  Kurt Masur , Lorin Maazel and others have   been

subject to  constant critical drubbing for this or that reason .  Interpretive style,  choice of repertoire , you name it .

It's impossible to please everyone .  

    In just one day , there has already been considerable speculation on  on possible conductors to  replace Gilbert .  It won't be an

easy task by any means , and never is with a major orchestra .  Some conductors  might be a good choice , but have taken up other prestigious

posts with other orchestras , and it;s unrealistic to expect them to be lured to New York so  early into there tenures elsewhere .  

   Other conductors might  be either too old  to  have the vigor to take up such a great responsibility so late in their careers, and others

are too young and inexperienced , as talented as they   are . Thre has even been talk about appointing  a woman conductor, 

which would be unprecedented for one of the so-called "big five " orchestras in America (New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,

Boston , Cleveland ).  

   And of course, it must not be a conductor who has never appeared as guest , because  this would be like  getting married to

someone you had never met .  The orchestra will not stand for a conductor it does not like and respect musically .  

    Gilbert has decided to step down before the  scheduled renovation of Avery Fisher hall in Lincoln Center, formerly known

as Philharmonic hall , which has  been  plagued by  problematic acoustics since its opening in 1962 .  This is tentatively scheduled to begin in

2018 , and the Philharmonic will have to find temporary residence somewhere else in New York .  

    There is no way to know now who the next music director will be . But the search will be as interesting as it is difficult .  Let's all hope for the 

best . 

Posted: Feb 06 2015, 11:03 PM by the horn | with no comments
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What's So Special About The String Quartet ?
   A kind of musical mystique surrounds  the chamber ensemble known as the string quartet - two violins, one viola, a cello .  It's one of the most 

rarified and  esoteric  genres of classical music , not something as immediately  appealing and colorful  as opera or orchestral music  ,

but something which  is highly rewarding to listen to if you give it a chance .  

   Of course, there are various other combinations of instruments in chamber music , such as  the piano trio , consisting of violin, cello and piano ,

quintets with a string quartet and a piano , etc , woodwind quintets, consisting of a flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and french horn ,

brass quintets , consisting of two trumpets , one horn,  two trombones , or one trombone and a tuba , and various miscellaneous ensembles

mixing strings, woodwinds and brass , amd   others .  But for some reason, the string quartet has been one of the most prestigious

musical   genres , and  many of the   greatest composers have written them , including Haydn, founder of the form ,  Mozart,  

Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms , Dvorak , Tchaikovsky ,  Mendelssohm , Smetana ,  Bela Bartok,  Shostakovich ,  Charles Ives ,  

Elliott Carter ,  and others have written memorable ones .  

   Haydn wrote about 80 of them ,  , and Beethoven 16 .   These, particularly the late ones, are considered to be some of Beethoven's most 

personal and profound works .  A symphony  might be said to reflect a composer's public  proclamations, but a string quartet is reserved  for his

most   intimate and   private thoughts .   

    In the 18th and early 19th centuries , the structure   of a typical string quartet is very similar to that of a symphony ; four movements ,

sometimes with a slow introduction to a relatively lively first movement in sonata form , a dignified slow movement  , a lively minuet for the 3, 

and a vivacious finale which is also in sonata form .  

   Beethoven, in the sublime and rather enigmatic late quartets he wrote not too long before his death in 1827 , experimented with   unorthodox  

structures, such as his radical  14th which consists of seven movements played without a break .  

   Some of the most notable string quartets of the 19th century are those byBrahms , Dvorak ,  Thaikovsky ,  the Belgian Cesar Franck ,

and the Czech Bedrich Smetama, best known for his comic opera  "The Bartred Bride ".  

   Yje 20th century is particularly rich in string quartets , some of the most notable being the six of the great Hungarian  Bela Bartok 

(1881 - 1945) , and the 15 of  Dmitri Shostakovich .  Those of Bartok  are steeped in the influence of  the folk music of  Bartok's native

Humgar  They are highly pungent and   spiky harmonically ,  though not unpleasant, and may take repeated hearings to  grasp .

    Those of Shostakovich   are brooding   commentaries on  the grim life inside the formewr Soviet Union and  the horrors of  the senond

world war .  They are extremely intense and  even harrowing at   times .

    IN America ,  the late Elliott Carter  (908 - 2012 )  wrote five highly complex and abstract quartets which are  truly challenging to the 

listener and definitely not for newcomers to classical music .  They are some of the most thorny and uncompromising music   you will

ever hear .  

    Among the most famous string quartet ensembles ,  active and  defunct are the Emerson quartet ,  the Juilliard quartet,consisting  of

string faculty members of the Juilliard faculty , the Budapest quartet ,  the Amadeus quartet ,  the Tokyo quartet,  

theGuarnieri quartet ,  to name only  some .  There is a welath of recordings of   string quartet repertoire on CD , and a good place

to order them online is, which specializes in classical CDs and DVDs and has a fantastic selection  overall  .    
Posted: Feb 02 2015, 09:58 PM by the horn | with no comments
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How Did The Symphony Orchestra Come Into Existence And Evolve ?
   The modern day symphony orchestra ,   which resides in a concert hall all year around except for touring ,  and which plays a different program  
every week from approximately September until May or June with  a music director (its chief conductor)  and a variety of guest conductors ,  bears  

little resemblance to the  early orchestras which existed in the 18th century  when Mozart and Haydn lived  .  

    Both consist of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion , but  the orchestras of the 18th century were much smaller  ,often  consisting of  only 

about 20 to 40 musicians  , although larger ones were used on occaision  when more musicians were available .  In addition to  the strings, which 

which were fewer in number than a modern orchestra , the woodwinds usually consisted of pairs of woodwinds, flutes, oboes , and bassoons . 

The clarinet did not come into existence until relatively late in the 18th century, and Mozart was   the first major composer to use  them .

   The brass consisted of two horns and two trumpets ;   Trombones did not make their appearance in the orchestra until Beethoven's 5th

symphony in the early 19th symphony . The tuba ws not invented until well into the 19th century .

5th also .      Beethoven also introduced the piccolo and the  cavernous-sounding contrabassoon in    the 5th symphony .  

    There  were tympani , , but the only well known 18th century symphony to   use other percussion instrumentssymphony of Haydn ,  

no 100 in his catalogue of 104 !

    In the 19th century , many orchestras were ad hoc groups assembled by composers such as Mozart to perform  their music .  Others  were 

supported privately by th aristocracy for private perfornaces , such as the one  which Haydn had at his disposal as Kappelmeister(music 

director ) for the music  loving Hungarian count Eszterhazy on his remote family estate .  

    In the 19th century , some orhestras of opera companies, such as  the Vienna Court opera , now the Vienna State opera , formed  concert  

orchestras  for public concerts . The most famous of these is  the great Vienna Philharmonic, which still consists of members of the Vienna St

opera orchestra .  

   In the 19th centtury , with the advent of  great composers of the Romantic period such  as Brahms, Dvorak,  Tchaikovsky , Bruckner and 

others , the size of the orchestra grew .  Four rather than two horns became the norm,   and  the use of three or even four trumpets became

a regular  feature of the brass section .    The piccolo became more common , as well as the English horn, amd the bass clarinet was now used .  

   In addition to the usual tymapny, cymbals,  snare and bass drum and other percussion instruments were no longer rarities , and the size of 

the string section grew .  Public concerts were now the norm with a resident orchestra in a given city .

   QWith the adven of the 20th century and  great composers such as Mahler, Richard Strauss and others , normous orchestras were sometimes 

used ,  with a hundred or more musicians .  The sizze of the brass section sometimes grew to eight horns, or six, four or even more trumpets, 

dfour trombones and even two tubas , with woodwinds now quadrupled or even quintupled, and a wide variety of different percussion 

instruments, and a huge string section .  Exotic instruments such as the Heckelphone, a kind of baritone oboe even lower  in pitch than

the English horn, Wagner tubas, which had been invented by Wagner for his Ring operas  were sometimes used .  In a section of eight horns,

horns 5-8 would periodically switch to the Wagner tubas , which are a sort of cross between a tuba and a French horn .

    By the 1040s , composers such as the mystical Frenchman Olivier Messiaen (1908 - 1992 ) began to use electronic instruments in the 

weird-sounding , unearthly Ondes Martenot and others .   

    Nowadays , orchestras play a wider variety of repertoire than ever before ; the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart are still very much with us ,

and orchestras sometimes perform the music of such baroque greats as Bach and Handel, although period instrument groups  seem to

be coming closer to a monopoly on this repertoire .  

    The mumber of orchestras  in Europe, America and elsewhere also increased greatly over the years  .  There are now thouands of them, not 

only in Europe and America , but all over Asia , in Japan, South Korea ,  China ,  Australia , and every continent except for Antarctica !

   The core repertoire of  belove   masterpieces by Beethoven, Schubert,Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms,  Dvorak, Tchaikovsky ,

Berlioz, Debussy, etc  is  the meat of the repertoire , but  many interesting long neglected works have been revived , and   music by such 20th

century masters as Stravinsky , Shostakovich , Prokofiev, Bartok , Copland ,  Samuel Barber , Sibelius ,  Ravel ,  and others is  quite popular .

   Despite the usual compalints , there is absolutely no lack of new or recent works  by  the likes of John Adams, Philip Glass, William Bolcom, 

Thomas Ades,  (ad-ess), Hans Werner Henze,  Peter Maxwel Davies,  Tan Dun, ( a native of china living in New York) ,  Jennifer

Higdon , Kaaia Saariaho (both women ) , and many other contemporary composers .  (Henze died a few years ago but his music is stillwidely 

played .)   

    In the course of any given season , a major orchestra  will play an enormous varitey of repertoire .  The symphony orchesta has been 

evolving for nearly 300 years , and there is no sign that is  is in any way  stagnant or  irrelevant . Who knows what the future will bring for it ?

Posted: Jan 29 2015, 10:18 PM by the horn | with no comments
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It's Mozart's Birthday Again - Don't Take His Music For Granted !
   Today , January 27 , would have been the 259th birthday of  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , one of the greatest names in classical music .  Child prodigy ,  pianist, violinist , composer , childlike  jokester and prankster , amiable weirdo .  An incomprehensible genius  who began composing as a small boy , took  the aristocratic courts of Europe by storm , but often frustrated and disappointed  as an  adult  when he had to  earn a living as a composer and perfroming musician .  

   He was the son of Leopold Mozart  ,  a well known violinist , pedagogue , conductor and  composer in his own wright , who taught him everything he knew about music , but who was surpassed by his own son , who was born in the picturesque town of Salzburg Austria in 1756 ,which still honors its most famous native son  year round .  Mozart showed an astonishing talent as bith a composer, pianist and violinist from  childhood, and Leopold realized he had a cash cow in his on son , whom he expolited by sending him on tours all over Eurpe under his guidance . 

    When he grew up , Mozart still coveted recognition for his astonishing talents , but  was no loger a child prodigy .  He was forced to accept employment  in his home town as a composer of  sacred music for the Archbishop of Salzburg , whom he disliked , and felt confined in provincial Salzburg . But for th  last decade of his life, he moved to Vienna, musical capitol of Europe, and  was able to earn a steady living  as a freelance composer and pianist , iViennese musicians to put on concerts of his own music ,playing his many piano concertos and  his symphonies and operas .

   The story that he died a pauper, unappreciated by the cruel Viennese is an urban legend ; he actuially did very well , but  ran into serious financial difficult8ies because he enjoyed gambling and the good life .  He died in  1791 , leaving his famous Reuiem mass unfinished . It was soon completed by one of his pupils, and this version is still widely performed and recorded .  The musical world has been  speculating on what divine masterpieces he might have written if he had lived longer, but this is futile .  In his 35 years , he composed over 600 works in all musical genres :  symphonies, concertos for piano, violin, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and French horn ;  22 operas, some of which were left in ncomplete form ;  no fewer than 27 piano concertos ,  Masses,  assorted  sacred choral works, serenades, divertimentos, etc, songs ,  string quartets, , piano sonatas, violin sonatas ,   you name it .  

   Unfortunately , many people have only a superficial familiarity with his music, knowing  a few of his most famous works ,or even just a handful of  famous melodies by him .  But you shouln't take these few works for granted  when you can hear all of them on CD . Not that you need to , because not everything by Mozart is a sublime masterpiece . He wrote some works as potboilers ; nothing wrong with this .  

    But if you don't know his music very well , you should at least familiarize yourself with his greatest operas "Don Giovanni", Le Nozze Di Figaro ,(the marriage of Figaro ), Cosi Fan Tutte (So do they all ), and Die Zauberflote , or the magic flute .  Plus his last six symphonies out of41 numbered ones, 35-41) ,  the piano concertos 20-27, violin concertos 3,4 and 5,  the four horn concertos ,  the clarinet concerto, the Requiem ,  some of his piano sonatas ,  and some of his string quartets to start .  

   The so-called "Eine Kleine Nachttmusik ", is very pleasant, but not one  of his greatest works . It doesn't mean "A little night music" in the sense of listening  to a little bit of music .  Nachtmusik means a seranade in German, and means "Night Music ". It means " A Little serenade ".  

    But you'll never regret getting to know Mozart's music better !   One note : Enjoyable as it is, the famous movie "Amadeus" plays fast and loose with the facts of Mozart's life . Don't take it too  seriously .
Posted: Jan 27 2015, 08:37 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Is HIP A Kind Of Musical Religion ?
   HIP stands for "Historically informed performance " , that is, using  the musical instruments of the past , or replicas of them , to perform  the music of such great composers as Bach , Handel , Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven , and now even the composers of the 19th and early 20 th century . And music of earlier composers such as Henry Purcell , Claudio Monteverdi and others , who lived before the 18th century .  

   Not only using the old instruments , but  carefully studying the differences in playing technique  style of interpretation , and dutifully following what musicologists and other scholars believe to be "  correct performance practi , that is not just playng the notes as written , but inflecting them in a style considered to be "authentic ". For example,  embellishing melodic lines with all sorts of unwritten ornaments .  Merely to play the notes as written written is to completely misunderstand the composer's intentions . This is just the tip of the iceberg  when it comes to learmnng  the ropes of  the period instrument movement .     

   A number of  composers form the past have left treatises on how they felt music should be interpreted , and these are extremely valuable .  But we still don't know exactly what the music sounded like or exactly how musicians interpreted it , or what long dead composers would or would not have approved of   when it comes to performing their music .   A time machine has yet to be invented . If only we had one !

    Among the differences between the old instruments and the familiar modern ones are the use of  strings wound from animal guts instead of the steel ones  which became standard in the 20th century .  These sound mrkedly different from steel strings . Also, string players on old instruments use little or no  vibrato , although we know that some vibrato was used in the past . Some HIP musicians and conductors have become overzealous and musically pridush and avoid vibrato altogether .

   Flutes were made out of wood , making them sound somewhat  more like recorders than the metal ones used by 20th century flutists .  They, plus the oboes, bassoons nd clarinetsw, are much simpler and have fewer  keys to press .  

    Horns and trumpets are natural, that is, lacking in valves . This means that every time you play in a different key, you have to use a different crook , or  length of tubing , to change the key in which the instrument plays .  Composers were limited in the melodic lines they could write because of this .  The tympny, or kettle drums, have  leather rather than metal  sufaces for the tympanist to strike with the mallet, making them sound somewhat different .  

    Harpsichords are more commonly used than before, as well as early pianos , which sound quite different and less   aggressive than the modern concert grand .  Orchestras and solo pperfomers an  chamber ensembles tune to a somewhat lower pitch , usually about a quarter to a half tone lower .  If you are blessed or cursed, with perfect pitch , a piece in C major may sound to you like one in B major !

   So why do I ask whther the movement ot perform music on period instruments is a kind of musical religion ?   The reason is that many HIP musicians  aare convinced that THEY are performing the music the right way , and are recreating the music exactly as it sounded in the past . Not all of them . Some have the humility to admit they can't be sure .  Some prominent  music critics and distinguished musicologists have a similar kind of arrogance .    

    Many of thes  HIP tend to look down on musicians who use modern instruments as "uninformed " about correct performance practice and   the whole HIP   movement, which is not necessarily the case .  You might look on the HIP musicians as the true believers who  think they have the  one true musical religion .  

    There are some musicians who look down on the whole HIP movement and dismiss it as nothing but musical pedantry and dismiss it as worthless .  Among these are such   world famous violinists as  Itzhak Perlman and  Pinchas Zukerman , and the late conductor Lorin Maazel ,who past away less than a year ago . You might call these the musical atheists .  

    Then there are those like myself, who find the movement very interesting  and  have liked SOME but not all  HIP performances I have heard .  WE don't know how authentic the performances are . WE are the agnostics .  

     Some of the leading  conductors of period instrument orchestras are  the Austrian Nikolaus Harnoncourt , the Englishmen Sir Roger Norrington ,  Christoher Hogwood , who also passed away last year ,  the Dutchman Frans Bruggen, , also deceased last year , , the Englishman Sir John Eliot Gardiner ,   and the Englishman Nicholas McGegan .  They also conduct prestigious mainstream modern instrument orchestras such as the Berlin Philharmonic, the Royal Concertgebouw orchesta   of Amsterdam ,  and others , generally trying to come as close as possible to imitating the old style of playing  as possible .  The Englishman Sir Simon Rattle, music director of the great Berlin Philharmonic , sometimes conducts period instrument orchestras .   

     Some of thes perido inswtrument orchestras have colorful names as "  Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment," the Orchestre Revolutionaire & Romantique ",   " The Academy of Ancient Music " etc . 

    There are also instrumental virtuosos of period instruments who are active  as soloists , such as violinist Andrew Manze aof England and Surch cellist Anner Bylsma , to name only a couple .  

   More recently, the HP movement has been applied to later composers such   Wagner, Berlioz, Schumann ,  Brahms ,  and even Bruckner and Mahler .  It has now moved up to Debussy, Ravel,  and Stravisnky, believe it or not !   But the later you go, the less difference there is between period and modern instruments .  

     if you're not familiar with period intruments , there are an enormous number of recordings on them by the musicians I mentioned and many others .  Listen , and decide for yourself whether you like them or not !    At least no one has ever killed other people over the kind of instruments  they use !
Posted: Jan 26 2015, 10:22 PM by the horn | with no comments
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Celebrating The 150 th Birthdays Of Two Great Scandinavian Composers - Sibelius & Nielsen .
   This year  marks the 150 th anniversity of the  the birth of two great Scandinavian composers , Jean Sibelius of Finland and Carl Nielsen of Denmark .  Sibelius is the better known of the two to the concertgoing public , but Carl Nielsen of Denmark has been  steadily gaining  more recognition  .  Nielsen died in 1931 and Sibelius in 1957 .   Both composers knew and admired each other , but their music is vastly different .  

   Jean Sibelius put the small  nation of Finland , which had long been ruled by Sweden and Russia  at different times, on the musical map , and while Nielsen was by no means the first Danish composer  to achieve some reputation in his country , he was the first truly great and original one .  Both were greatly honored in their native countries , but  Nielsen did not become  well known outside his native Denmark and Sweden   until  many years after his death .  

   The music of Sibelius, on the other hand ,  was widely performed outside of Scandinavia during his long lifetime , and his orchestral works ,including  seven symphonies, a violin concerto and assorted  highly descriptive works evoking the folklore and colorful wild landscapes of Finland , were championed by such great conductors as Serge Koussevitzky, Sir Thomas Beecham , Sir John Barbirolli and others .  But Nielsen's quirky , strange and  highly individual music was almost totally unknown in America until Leonard Bernstein  discovered it in the 1960s while music director of the New York Philharmonic and began to perform and record it .  And since then, many other leading comductors  have perforned and recorded his music .

    Nielsen is best known for his highly original six symphonies, the delightful woodwind quintet , and his delightfully weird  his clarinet concerto ,but he aso wrote a number of  symphonic poems , concetos for violin and flute,  , various choral works , piano pieces , songs , and two operas etc .  Sibelius also wrote numerous works for piano even though he was a violinist, not a pianist . Nielsen was also a  violinist , and both composers were also active as conductors . 

    The orchestral works of Sibelius are often  brooding , mysterious and  full of  misty colors ; the music of Nielsen is robust , extroverted , muscular , filled with bright colors  and unlike the Finn , even  witty and humorous at times .  Nilesen's  music, particularly his later works , are much more harmonically adventurous  and even approach atonality at times .   

   According  to Leonard Bernstein, one characteristic of  Nielsen's music is its "total unpredictability ".  His music is always full of surprises .  For example, the two sets of battling antiphonal   tympani in the finale  of his tumultuous 4th symphony, subtitles "The Inextinguishable" ,  and the passage in the 5th symphony where the snare drummer   is instructed by the composer to imprivise his part, flailing away madly as though he had gone berserk , with no regard for what the rest of the orchestra is doing !  In the flute concerto , a bass trombone acts as a kind of heckler to the solo flute !

    Some of the most important works of Sibelius are based on the ancient epic of  pagan Finnish history the Kalevala ,   with its  gods, heroes, sorcerors and  magic spells .  The Kalevala has been translated into many different languages, including English , and is well worth reading .  These include the early choral symphony "Kullervo ",, which the composer suppressed and which was not perfomed until the 1970s, the "Four Legends from the Kalevala ", the most famous part being the haunting  "Swan of Tuonela ", with its portrayal of a swan wandering through the gloomy waters of the Finnish Hades , uding an English horn as soloist .  

    One of the last works of Sibelius is the  harrowing  Tapiola" , a  chilling description of the wild winds and storms of the Fiinnish forests . Tapio is the Finnish god of the forests .  For some reason, Sibelius  seems to have burned out as a composer for   the last 20 years of his long life ,  producing almost nothing and  destroying a number of works he had written .  There were rumors of an 8th symphony , but it was either never never completed and left in fragmentary sketches or possibly destroyed by the composer .

    Sibelius lived a rather isolated life in his  home "Ainola" , named after his wife Aino  (  pronounced I know ) , sometimes receiving visitors and listening to performances of his music over the radio .  Ainola lies not too far from the Finnish capitol Helsinki , and you can still visit it .  

   Carl Nielsen died of  a heart ailment in 1931 at the height of his powers as a composer .  But you should not miss the music of either composer .     There are numerous recordings of the symphonies and other orchestral works of these two Scandinavian giants by such great conductors as Sir Thomas Beecham, Leonard Bernstein , Serge Koussevitzky , Paavo Berglund, Herbert Blomstedt, Neeme Jarvi ,  and many others , and  most of the greatest violinists of the 20th century have recorded the violin concerto . 
Posted: Jan 24 2015, 03:59 PM by the horn | with no comments
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