Habemus conductorem ! In a surprise move , the members of the mighty Berlin Philharmonic have chosen a dark horse to their next chief
conductor to take the helm from Sir Simon Rattle in 2018 when Rattle departs to lead the London Symphony orchestra . After failing to choose
a new chief maestro last month , the members of the orchestra , who choose their top man unlike most other orchestras , have chosen a
relatively unfamiliar name to the concertgoing public , a 43 year old Russian conductor who is currently general music director of the
presitigious Bavarian State opera in Munich and is better known for conducting opera than concerts . Vasily Petrenko is a native of Omsk,
Russia and has conducted leading orchestras and opera companies all over Europe as well as at the Metropolitan opera .
He is not nearly as well known yet to the classical music public as such renowned conductors as Christian Thielemann , Rattle, Mariss Jansons ,
Riccardo Chailly , Valery Gergiev , Daniel Barenboim and others, all of whom have been regular guests with the Berliners , and had only
conductoed the orchestra on three occaisions . But the musicians of the orchestra were so favorably impressed by Petrenko's conducting that
they have chosen himto succeed Rattle .
Although Russian , Petrenko has extensive experience conducting the operas of such quintessential German composers as Wagner
and Richard Strauss , and his conducting of Wagner's Ring of the Nibelungen at the Bayreuth festival in the past two Summers was lavshly
praised by leading German music critics and others .
Not having heard him conduct yet, I can't pass judgment on Petrenko , but everything I have heard about him so far indicates that he
is an outstanding musician and conductor . How his tenure with the Berlin Philharmonic will turn out is impossible to predict ,
as with every conductor who has just been chosen to lead a top orchestra , but for the time being , things are looking up for this magnificent
The great Danish composer Carl Nielsen was born a century and a half ago on June 9th , 1865 and died in 1931 , honored as the foremost
composer of that small but charming Scandinavian country . Unless you're fairly knowledgable about classical music , you may not have
heard of this highly individual composer , who was almost totally unknown in America until Leonard Bernstein discovered his music
in the mid 1960s and began to perform and record it with his then orchestra , the New York Philharmonic .
His music was not even that well known in Europe outside of Scandinavia . But things have changed , and Carl Nielsen has been
generally recognized as a truly great composer everywhere . Unlike his great contemporary Jean Sibelius of Finland , who was born the same
year , no leading conductors championed his music until fairly recently . The music of Sibelius had powerful champions in such great
conductors as Leopold Stokowski , Sir Thomas Beecham , Sir John Barbirolli , Serge Koussevitzky and others .
Nielsen is a difficult composer to pidgeon-hole . He neither began nor followed any "isms". The only ism he ever followed was
individualism . Perhaps this caused the relative lack of appreciation he received during his lifetime . He was born on the island of
Funen in the Danish archipelago , the son of humble parents , one of 12 children . His father was a house painter and amateur
folk musician , and the young Carl grew up in the idyllic Danish countryside . He learned to play several instruments ,including
the trumpet but concentratted on the violin and studied at the Copenhagen conservatory under the leading Danish musicians of the day .
He became a member of the second violin section of the Royal Danish orchestra , which is the orchestra of the Royal Copenhagen opera
as well as playing regular concerts ; the orchestra still exists in the same capacity today . He also began to conduct opera and concerts there
while producing a wide variety of orchestral works, chamber music, choral works, two operas , etc and began to make a name for himself
as a composer in his native country and nearby Sweden , where he regularly conducted , including his own works .
Nielsen's most famous works are his six brilliant ,powerful and highly original symphonies ; they have finally gained a place in the
international orchestral repertoire and have been recorded fairly often by a wide variety of different conductors . His woodwind quintet , for
flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and horn is probably the greatest work for that combination of instruments . (There are more than you may
The delightful, witty and sparkling comic opera "Maskarade ", which takes place at a Copenhagen masquerade ball , is considered the
Danish national opera , is probably the only opera by a Scandinavian composer to be performed with any frequency outside of Scandinavia
and is available on DVD .
The clarinet concerto is probably the greatest concerto for that instrument , and the delightful violin concerto is finally coming into its own '
The flute concerto is also delightful . Orchestral works include the radiant concert overture "Helios" which evokes the sun rising and falling
on the Agaean sea , based on Nielsen's visit to Greece , the symphonic poem "Pan & Syrinx " based on Greek mythology , and the
"Imaginary journey to the Faeroe Islands " . as well as the scinitlating overture to "Maskarade ." The choral works are very interesting
but totally unknown outside of Scandinavia . They have been recorded , though .
The music of Carl Nielsen is full of energy ; it is optimistic and life-affirming ,although it can be grindingly dissonant at times . It is
the exact opposite of the brooding , mystical and dark music of his Finnish friend Sibelius , who was inspired by the specatacular
forests and primitive countryside of his homeland as well as its ancient pagan Finno-Ugrian mythology .
Nielsen's music mixes joviality , humor and optimism with stark, angular dissonances in a highly personal way . One of his greatest and
best known works is his 4th symphony , subtitled "The Inextinguishable " was inspired by the horrendous carnage of the first world war and
was premiered at the time . The concept of the symphony is that life is indestructable and there is an elemental life force in the universe
which would preserve life despite the horrifying destruction of the war . The work itself is not " inextinguishable ; it represents
the elemental will to life . The work is in four continuous movements without a break and is filled with fierce conflict and clashing
dissonances ; there is no central key such as C major or minor ; different keys clash with each other and fight for dominance .
In the 4rth movement . ther eis a fierce battle between two antiphonal sets of tympani which thunder at each other in an almost
terifying way . But the symphony ends with fiercely defiant optimism .
The even stranger 5th symphony has no subtitle . It is in two movements . Nielsen conceived of this unique work as a representation of the
elemental struggle between good and evil , chaois and order . Again, there is no central key and the symphony wanders from key to key
in a way which may seem chaotic at first but which proves to be highly logical . In the first movement a solo snare drum beats away
relentlessly amid whatsounds lile random noise and chaos ; eventually the player is directed by Nielsen to begin playing as though he
had gone berserk and all hell breaks loose in a terrifying battle ; but the drum is soon silenced and the movement ends in quiet
contemplation a clossal battle which has ended . The frenetically energetic 2nd movement is an attempt to rise above the
chaos of the first and ends again, in fiercely defiant triumph . No symphony like this had ever been written before .
You can easily obtain recordings of Nielsen's music led by such eminent conductors as Leonard Bernstein , Herbert Blomstedt,
Simon Rattle, Paavo Berglund . Sir Colin Davis and others , as well as his non-orchestral works . Check arkivmusic.com to order
them or amazon.com . You'll wonder where this wonderful music has been all your life !
This story isn't brand new, so please excuse me ; it happened last month , and it's as fascinating as it is important . The 123 members of the great
Berlin Philharmonic met last month at an undisclosed location to decide on a conductor to succeed Sir Simon Rattle as chief conductor when he
steps down in a few years to be the next prinicpal conductor the the London symphony orchestra .
Unfortunately , the musicians were unable to agree on the winning candidate annouced they will make their descision within a year or less .
Critics , commentators and classical music fans everywhere were sorely disappointed . There has been so much speculation ; it's a lot like
wondering who the next president of the U.S. will be . Everyone, or almost everone has a favored conductor he or she would like to see lead
this mighty ensembel with its illustrious history dating back to 1882 when it was founded . Previous chief conductors have included such
podium giants as Claudio Abbado , who passed away only last year at the age of 80 , Herbert von Karajan and Wilhelm Furtwangler . Virtually all
of the world's foremost conductors have appeared with the Berliners over the years , and the orchestra has made an enormous number of
recordings under its chief conductors and guest conductors for such prestigious record labels as Deutsche Grammophon , EMI , Philips, and
The Berlin Philharmonic is a self-governing institution ; the members of the orchestra choose their chief conductors and guests as well
as winnders of auditions for membership in the orchestra , although there is a general manager who functions as an administrator .
In most other orchestras , the chief conductor or music director is chosen by the management with the input of the orchestra members ,
but the Berlins have control over the whole process .
Meetings to choose a chief conductor have been compared to Papal conclaves in Rome ; last month , the musicians were required to
temporarily surrender their cell phones for the vote .
But this time, the musicians were unable to reach a majority vote , and the decision had to be postponed . The renowned Berlin born
conductor Christian Thielemann, currently general music director of the presitigious and historic Saxon State opera in Dresden and the
presitigious Dresden State orchestra, which fiuctions both as a concert orchestra and the opera house's orchestra , has been considered
to be the most likely candidate by many, and he was a protege of the legendary Herbert von Karajan many years ago before he became
world famous . Other conductors who had been regular guests have been considered possibilities, such as Latvian Mariss Jansons , who
may be too old at 72 , Daniel Barenboim, the same age , and for many years general music director of the Berlin State opera , or younger
ones such as Venezualan Gustavo Dudamel of the Los Angeles Philharmonic or Latvian Andris Nelsons, recently installed as music director of
the Boston symphony , but Nelsons is unlikely to give up Boston so soon or lead both orchestras simultaneously . Now it's anyone's guess .
Could a dark horse emerge ? Who knows ?
If you ask me "who is my favorite composer , my favorite conductor , pianist , violinist , opera singer , orchestra " , sorry , I just can't choose
from so many great ones , living and dead . But this is a characteristic of mine ; I'm hard pressed to tell you my favorite book , magazine ,
newspaper , film , television program , food, drink , website , or what have you .
I've been listening to , reading about , studying and performing classical music for nearly 5o years now, since I was only about 13 years old . .
I've experienced so many great composers , works , musicians , recordings and live performances it's virtually immpossible to name my
favorites . Of course , I like some composers , some works and some musicians more than others , and dislike some , but it's like choosing
the favorite among your children .
Of course , I love the great established masterpieces of the repertoire by Bach ,Mozart, Beethoven , Wagner, and other famous composers ,
but there's so much wonderful music which is off the beaten path by composers who are not household names . Ever heard of such
composers as Karol Szymanowski , Carl Nielsen , Hans Pfitzner, Arnold Bax , Albert Roussel , Sergei Taneyev , Alberic Magnard ,
Jon Leifs , Wilhelm Stenhammar , Nikolai Myaskovsky , Charles Koechlin , George Whitefield Chadwick , Havergal Brian ,
Roberto Gerhard , Rued Langgaard , etc ? Probably not unless you're a real lover of classical music with a lot of listening experience ,
but all of these wrote some terrific music that is well worth hearing . And this is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to obscure
but interesting composers . They come from countries as diverse as Denmark , America , England , Russia , Poland , Sweden and even
Iceland in the case of Jon Leifs . And it's so easy to get recordings of their music now , even though your chances of hearing their music live
are not very great .
It's similar with recordings . You can get the music of Beethoven , Bach, Mozart, Wagner, Tchaikovsky ,Debussy , Ravel et performed
by a galaxy of different conductors , orchestras , solists and singers ranging from the early 20 th century to musicians of the present day .
Take the nine symphonies of Beethoven alone ; among the most important cornerstones of the classical canon .
The first complete recording of Beethoven's iconic fifth symphony was made by the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by the once
world famous Hungarian conductor Artur Nickisch around 1914 , under the most primitive recording conditions . An acoustical
recording made before electronic recordings . It's a fascinating document . Nickisch , one of the first superstar conductors , iived from
1855 to 1922 . He was born less than 30 years after the death of Beethoven in 1827 ! Since then , who knows how many
conductors , famous and not so famous , have recorded the Beethoven symphonies, many in integral sets of all nine .
Such legendary names as Toscanini , Bernstein , Stokowski , Karajan , Bruno Walter, Solti , Mengelberg , Klemperer , Carlos Kleiber ,
to name only a handful . The young Venuzuelan conductor Gustavo Dudamel , born in 1981 , is one of the more recent ones .
How do you choose a favorite when you've heard so many recordings of just one famous symphony ? It's not easy .
You will like some more than others , but for me it's virtually impossible . Many conductors have recorded these symphonies
on two or more occaisions . The legendary Austrian maestro Herbert von Karajan left no fewer than FOUR sets of all nine Beethoven
symphonies , beginning in the 1950s with London's Philharmonia orchestra , not to be confused with the London Philharmonic , and then
with the Berlin Philharmonic , which he led for over 30 years . The last set was in Digital sound in the 1980s . He lived from 1908 to 1989 .
If you're looking for recordings of the Beethoven symphonies , it's a daunting task if you're a beginner .
As there is no one right way to perform a musical work, especially an immortal masterpiece , there are different approaches , and fans and
critics debate the virtues of different recordings endlessly . Which is the best ? Who has made THE definitive recordign of any of the nine
Beethoven symphonies . Well, there is no such thign as a "definitive " performance of any masterpiece . Different conductors have
changed their approach to interpretation over the years .
Do you want a classic recording by such greats as Toscanini and Furtwangler made between the 1930s and 50s in dated ,
less than high fidelity sound , or a more recent digital one recorded with amazing clarity and presence by eminent living maestros
such as Daniel Barenboim, Riccardo Chailly , Bernard haitink and others . You can also hear recordings on period instruments , with gut
strings, simpler woodwind instruments , valveless horns and trumpets and old fashioned tympany made with leather rather than plastic .
One thing is certain ; comparisons between different conductors and orchestras are fascinating . On one extreme, you have the
fast and furious recordings of the legendary Arturo Toscanini , so full of nervous energy , and on the other extreme , the slow, majestic,
weighty and deliberate recordings of the legendary German conductor Otto Klemperer . Which is right ? You decide , but no one
has a monopoly on the right way to conduct the Beethoven symphonies . As Beethoven has been dead for narly 200 years , we will
bever know which ones he woudl or would not have liked . But the arguments will never cease among different listeners .
But we should be greatful for the existence of so many different interpretations .
Possibly you will have your favorites . But I just can't decide . I'd rather just enjoy the music than worry about my favorites .
You probably haven't heard of Chinese-born American violinist Frank Hwang , but he's just won Classical Music's equivalent of the lottery ,
and one of the most prestigious posts in the world of the symphony orchestra . He's just been appointed to be the next concertmaster, that is
the principal violinist of the New York Philharmonic , oldest symphony orchestra in America .
He managed to beat out many other brilliantly gifted violinists from other great orchestras to get this plum job , so it isn't as easy
as winning the lottery through blind luck . He got the job through a combination of enormous talent and even more hard work developing
his talent from an early age, not to mention sheer luck . But the competition for such a coveted position is very much like the lottery in that
of getting such a job if you're a violinist are pretty much astronomical . It's tough enough to get a job as a a section violinist in a great
orchestra , or a position in any section , but Frank Hwang has achieved something which very few classical musicians will
ever do no matter how talented .
If you're interested to know how orchestral auditions work , you can check a post I did years ago when I first began my blog here
called "How do you get a job in a symphony orchestra " ? As a horn player , I went through this harrowing ritual many times, including
three auditions for the New York Philharmonic myself . Believe me, it's not an experience for those who are faint-hearted !
Hwang was born in China in 1978 but came to America with his family as a child , and was first taught the violin by his mother .
He went on to study seriously after initial lack of enthusiasm , studied with distinguished teachers , won many presitigious prizes
and appeared as a soloist with many leading orchestras as well as playing recitals and performing chamber music .
He became concertmaster of the presitigious Houston symphony , but when the renowned violinist Glenn Dicterow, who recently retired as
Philharmonic after over 20 years , he manged to beat out many other superb violinists for the job , and spent several weeks as a guest
concertmaster trying out for the job . This frequently happens at auditions . After winnowing out many applicants , the
finalists are sometimes given a chance to perform at actual concerts with the orchestra as a trial .
Music director Alan Gilbert , who will be leaving this post in two years , made the final choice of Hwang for the job . A committee of
members of the orchestra votes on candidates for any position , but the music director always has the final say .
So congratulations , Frank Hwang ! You have enormous shoes to fill , following in the footsteps of so many outstanding concertmasters
of the New York Philharmonic . It's a great responsibility being in the hot seat of a great orchestra .
The concertmaster is like the quarterback of a football team . It's an incredibly tough and demanding job , and the pressure
is enormous . The concermaster has to play any given violin solo in orchestral works , and is responsible for crucial tasks such
as regulating the bowing of the violins and being the liason between the violins and the conductor . Sometimes the
concertmaster plays violin concertos with the orchestra , or as a guest with other orchestras . Glenn Dicterow did this often and with
the greatest distinction .
Being the concertmaster of the orchestra has certain perks , such as being the highest paid member of the orchestra , and though
he won't make the same salary as the quarterback of an NFL quarterback , he has a very steady job and will last much lnger
on the job than any football player on the job and like the other members of the orchestra , will get generous benefits andd two months
paud vacation ! Not too shabby !
Today is the 90 th birthday of one of the most important and influential classical musicians of our time , Pierre Boulez . It would be difficult to
overstate his enormous impact on classical music in the 20 th and early 21st centuries , both as a composer and conductor , as well as a teacher ,
writer and theorist . He is now retired from conducting and composing due to failing eyesight and physical frailty , but the entire vast
world of classical music is celebrating his birthday today .
Born in Montbrison , France in 1925 , Boulez studied composition in Paris with the great French composer Olivier Messiaen at the
Paris conservatoire , and became known as a composer of rigorous , highly complex serial music which never pandered to
audiences and even alienated many listeners , as well as a champion of the 12 tone music of the so-called "Second Viennese school " of
Arnold Schoenberg , Anton Webern and other modern composers .
Boulez became known as an Enfant Terrible of contemporary music , contemptuously dismissing 20 th century composers who did not meet
his rigorous standards of modernity , Shostakovich , for example and once arrogantly declared that any living composer who did
not conform to rigorous atonal serialism was "irrelelvant" and "useless " , showing total disregard for what concertgoers expected ,
as well as alienating many other prominent composers . but he continued to produce works which gained performances and
earned the admiration of such musical giants as Igor Stravinsky . Most have been works for smallish ensembles of diverse instruments ,
including electronic instruments , marimbas and other exotic devices , some with solo voices . Three extremely difficult piano sonatas ,
and works with such strange titles as " The hammer without a master ", "Pli Selon Pli " (fold on fold ) etc .
He used the texts of once avant-garde French poets for his vocal works and these were reocrded a mumber of times , sometimes under
his direction . Boulez did not originally intend to become a conductor , but felt the need to in order to have his intentions best realized .
Boulez began to appear with such great orchestras as the Cleveland orchestra , the London symphony and others , and in the 1970s
became principal conductor of Lndon's BBC symphony orchestra , which was sponsored by the BBC and allowed him ample rehearsal
time to achieve performances of the greatest polish and precision . He also began to conduct opera , appeared regularly at the
world famous Wagner festival at Bayreuth , leading the controversial 1976 centennial production of Wagner's Ring , which brike with
traditional sets and costumes , and acclaimned productions of Berg's Wozzeck and Lulu at the Paris opera , and Debussy's Pelleas &
Melisande at London's Royal opera .
When Leonard Bernstein stepped down as music director of the New York Philharmonic in 1969 , Boulez took the orchestra over in
1971 . He was exact opposite of the the flamboyant , exuberant and highly emotional podium figure which Berbnstein was ;
he was sober , restrained and undemonstrative on the pppodium , and many critics and listeners accused him of being a coldly
analytic musician who favored a totally cerebral approach to music making . But all acknowledged his enormous technical expertise
and fastidious attention to detail .
The musicians of the New York Philharmonic were sometimes exasperated by his rigirous attention to detail in rehearsals and insistence
on achieving perfectly in tune playing , clarity of texture , that is making sure that everything in a score can be clearly heard , which is far
easy . Particularly with contemprary works with their enormous complexity .
Boulez avoided the audience -pleasing works of Tchaikovsky , Rachmaninov and other Romantic era composers , with which he had no
affinity and even disdain for , concentrating on music by Debussy , Ravel, Schoenberg, Berg, Webern , Bartok, Stravinsky , Messiaen and
20th century composers. However , he did not bar guest conductors from doing the audience favorites .
When he stepped down from the Philharmonic in 1977 , he moved to Paris , where with the generous funding of the French government ,
he became director of a center for avant garde music called IRCAM , the International center for experimentation in modern music , leading
musicians who specialized in new music as well as experimenting with combining electronic and acoustical instruments . .
Boulez maintained his relationships as guest conductor with the Cleveland orchestra , the Chicago symphony , the Vienna Philharmonic
the Berlin Philharmonic and other great orchestras , but his activities as a conductor limited his time to compose .
AS a composer , Boulez began using Schoenberg's 12 tone techniques , but was determined to go beyond them and achieve
even greater complexity and compositional rigor . Shortly after Schoenberg's death in 1951 , he wrote a notorious article
called "Schoenberg is dead ", dismissing the great Austrian's music as no longer sufficiently avant garde . Music which was once
considered outrageous in the early 20 th century was now old hat to him !
If you are looking for tunefulness in music , you will never be able to grasp the music of Boulez . But it rewards repeated listenings .
He has also made numerous recordings as a conductor for Sony Classical (formerly CBS and Columbia records ) Deutsche Grammophon
and other labels of music by Debussy, Ravel, Wagner, Mahler , Schienberg , Webern , Bartok , Stravinsky ,Messiaen and other composers ,
including operas by Wagner , Debuusy , Schienberg , Berg and Bartok , many of which have won awards , such as the Grammies .
Boulez has served as a mentor to many younger composers and conductors who went on to achieve world fame ; Daniel Barenboim ,
for example . He is a giant of modern music , as uncompromising and forbidding as he may seem .
According to conventional wisdom , the world of classical music is staid and set in its ways , and slow to change . There is some truth to this
accusation , but things are still vastly different from its past . No longer is classical music dominated by white, preferably European males .
There are still plenty of them in the field, which is not necessarily a bad thing . After all , dead white European males are pretty much
what brought classical music into existence many centuries ago , and they have dominated the field as composers , conductors ,
members of orchestras , instrumental soloists etc .
But in recent years , women and non-whites have been achieving unprecendented prominence in all the fields just mentioned .
something which would have been unimaginable in the past . Of course, there have been countless famous and beloved female opera singers ,
as well as a fair number of female violinists , pianists , cellists etc . However, there have been far more women composers than most people
realize , but because of sexism , they never achieved the public recognition might have gotten had they been male . The sisters of
both Mozart and Mendelssohn were composers of considerable talent , as well as performers, but as women things were
against them . Robert Schumann's wife Clara was a renowned pianist who also composed , and some of her music has been recorded .
There are so many from the past who are now forgotten , but a surprising amount of their music has been recorded in recent years .
But today , there are more women composer before the public than ever before, and some of them have been widely performed .
Among them are Sofia Gubaidullina of Russia , Kaaia Saariaho of Finland, Judith Weir of England, and Jennifer Higdon of America , to name
only a few . Now, it's not even news when an orchestra performs a work by a woman composer .
Until recently, the field of conducting was dominated bywhite males . But more and more are starting to appear with the world's leading
opera companies . Marin Alsop , a New York native and protege of Leonard Bernstein , is the first woman to be appointed as music director o
the Baltimore symphony , and has made recordings with them and achieved considerable acclaim . Australian Simone Young served until
recently as music director of the Hamburg State opera , one of the most prestigious in Germany . Susanna Malkki of Finland is rapidly
achieving international recognition , and she has even been touted as a long shot to become next music director of the New York Philharmonic
when Alan Gilbert steps down .
There are many others , too many to mention here . 50 years ago , there were very few women in mosy of the world's top orchestras ,
but now there are plenty of them . This began when orchestras adapted blind auditions , with candidates playing behind a screen , which they
still use .
Asian countries such as Japan , China and South Korea have been major players in classical music for many years . Japanese conductor
Seiji Ozawa turns 80 this year , Chinese superstar Lang Lang sells out audiences everywhere . and there are so many others .
Japanese , South Korean and Chinese musicians are now common in leading orchestras everywhere , as well as Asian Americans /
Young and enormously gifted Asian aspiring classical musicians are now filling leading music schools all over America , such as
Juilliard , the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia , and others . They are actually a majority at Juilliard .
The renowned Vienna Philharmonic , which in order to preserve its traditional sound , has always favored native born
Austrian male musicians , has been subject ot considerable criticism for failing to give women and Non-Austrians a chance , has
gradually begun to accept some of these lately .
Unfortunately , African Americans still make up only about one percent of American orchestras . but this is not due to discrimination , but
the fact that very few African Americans have ever aimed at careers in orchestras . But no one is standing in they way , and
blind auditions guarantee that they will not face discrimination . There are no doubt some talented aspiring young black
instrumentalists now , and there is no reason for young blacks with talent not to aim for a career in them .
Opera is the field within classical which has produced the most African Americans , and these include such legendary
opera stars as Leontyne Price , Marian Anderson , Grace Bumbry , Shirley Verret and others .to name only a few .
Marian Anderson was the first balck singer to star at the Metropolitan opera , as far back as the 1950s .
The late Henry Lewis was the first black conductor to appear at the Metropolitan opera, and first to be music of a major
US orchestra , the New Jersy symphony orchestra . Marian Anderson's nephew James De Priest , who passed away last year ,
was an internationally acclaimed conductor who appeared with leading orchestras around the world for decades .
Maybe the world of classical music is not quite as staid as we've been led to believe by critics and commentators !
The old Chinese saying "May you live in interesting times " can be interpreted as a curse or something not so negative . These are certainly
interesting times for classical music . The Chinese pictogram for the word crisis consists of the words danger and opportunity .
A crisis could bring good news as well as disaster . So here are some of the most important recent stories from the anything but staid and boring
world of classical music .
The billionaire media moghul David Geffen , who is said to be a lover of classical music , has just donated millions of dollars to
Avery Fisher hall, home of the New York Philharmonic in Lincoln center , to subsidize renovation of the acoutically troubled concert
hall in the hopes of improving its acoustics . This is scheduled to begin in 2019 , and will force America'soldest symphony
orchestra to seek temporary change of venue for its concerts . No one is certain about this, but the neighboring David H. Koch
theater , former home of the defunct NewYork City opera has been proposed .
This is always a dicey move . When what used to be called hilharmonic hall , now Avery Fisher hall, opened in 1972 when the late,
great Leonard Bernstein was music director , it was considered by all to b e an acoustical disaster . The late billionaire businessman
Avery Fisher donated money for a renovation in the mid 1970s , and while there was definite improvement, the hall is still
considered to be far from the equal of those in Boston , Vienna and Amsterdam , which are renowned for the way they make
orchestras sound magnificent .
A new concert in Paris has just opened a few months ago , and according to reports , the acoustics are excellent . Building new
concert halls is always a crap shoot ; there is no way to predict how good the acoustics will be . For every acoustical success in
recent years , many duds have opened .
London has no fewer than five full time orchestras , unlike New York which has only its Pilharmonic and various part time ones .
But there have been many complaints that London , one of the world's greatest centers of classical music , does not have a single
concert hall with superlative acoustics , and there are plans to build a new one which will aim to remedy this situation .
The acoustics of Carnegie hall , which had been the home of the New York Philharmonics until the opening of Lincold center
in the early 1960s are considered world class .
The renowned English conductor Sir Simon Rattle has been appointed to become the next chief conductor of the London symphony
orchestra in 2017 when Valery Gergiev steps down and takes over the Munich Philharmonic . Rattle has been chief conductor of the Berlin
Philharmonic since 2002 and no definite successor in Berlin has been decided on yet . He has expressed hopes for a first rate
new hall for London , and his considerable influence seems to have worked .
If you go to facebook discussions , classical music forums, articles on the internet and other websites where classical music is discussed and
argued about , something which I as a classical musician naturally do every day , you can't help notice people who are either performers,
critics , scholars , teachers and others who are merely knowledgable listeners who are always longing for the "good old days"
of classical music , centuries or merely decades ago , when everything was so much better than the present day ; I just encountered
several in the past few days .
If you believe these individuals , everything was so much better in the world of classical music long ago ; most music was new , rather than
today's supposed concentration on music from the past, and a tiny fraction of it at that , when conductors were so much better than
those of today , ditto orchestras , violinists , cellists and other instrumental soloists , when orchestras supposedly had "distinctive sounnds"
rather than the way they supposedly "all sound alike" today , when standards of opera singing were so much higher , and when musicians
didn't all perform the same music the same way and performers had "real personality " and individuality ", as opposed to the "cookie
cutter" musicians of today who are all so" timid and pednatically literal ".
But in fact, there is no lack of new music today , and the classical repertoire is actually more DIVERSE than ever before .
Longing for the "golden age" is nothing new and can be found in all fields of human endeavor . The ancient Romans had a term for
someone who is always knocking the present and longing for the "good old days ". The Laudator Temporis Acti", or one who praises
bygone days . Classical music has been full of these "laudators " for as long as I can remember reading about it ; books,
magazine articles , etc , and now the internet . And I've been a classical music freak for nearly 50 years since I was a teenager !
I recently read an interesting article by an English musicologist which someone posted on facebook the other day , claiming that
we "don't perform classical music the right way " , based on research , historical recordings , writings etc .
According to this scholar , classical concerts have become rigid and formalized ; audiences were much more relaxed and casual at
concerts , and musicians didn't care about techincal perfection and avoided the pedantic literalism of interpretation which has become t
the norm today . Cincerts were fun and festive ! Musicians took risks and took interpretive liberties which are frowned upon today .
I've read numerous articles like in recent years . There may be some truth to it, but based on my decades of listeing experience to both
recordings and live performances, and countless reviews by critics in newspapers, magazines and now the internet , as well as books,
maintain that reports of the supposed "pedantic literalism " and "lack of individuality in interpretation " have been greatly exaggerated .
Why ? Because I've read countless reviews of live performances and recordings in my day in which critics mercilessly
lambasted msuicians for all the liberties they took with the music . !
Something just doesn't add up here . There's a huge paradox, and a double standard . If musicians today are so "pedantically literal ",
why have I read so many negative reviews in which the critics accused them of all manner of interpetive excesses , mannerisms
and other quirks which they PRAISE in old recordings by legendary musicians of the past ?
The legendary piano virtuoso Vladimir Horowowitz, (1903-1989 ) for example, is extolled for his interpetive flair, imagination , panache
and individuality . But one of today's most prominent piano virtuosos, Lang Lang of China , who is perhaps
the most renowned of today's classical pianists , is always being sneered at for his alleged "lack of seriousness and depth ,
superficial technical display at the expense of interpretive profundity and shameless exhibitionism " . Talk about a double
standard . Horowitz can do anything with the music he wants and critics rave , but Lang Lang shows his own flair and
individuality , and the critics blast him and refuse to acknowledge him as a serious musical artist . There are many,many
other examples of critics applying this double standard with other musicians of the present day .
Horowitz is held up as a paragon of pianists , yet Lang Lang is cynically used as an excuse to make sweeping generalizations about
how standards of musicianship have supposedly declined from the idealized past .
There have been similar brickbats handed out to to the brillianitly gifted Venuzuelan-born conductor Fustavo Dudmel, now in his
early 30s like Lang Lang , and who in the past decade or so has risen quickly into the foremost ranks of today' conductors
and is now music director of the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic . Dudamel is the most famous product of Venuzuela's
now famous "El Sistema", which has given so many poor youngsters in that country a chance to learn musical instuments and
play in numerous youth orchestras .
Dudamel is enormously gifted, charismatic , and bursting with enthusiasm . But he's no mere flashy podium glamor boy .
He's the genuine article ; a conductor who has the potential to become one of the greatest conductors in a field where conductors
often do not reach until long past youth , and elderly maestros who are still active are not at all uncommon .
But there has been plenty of critical flack , not necessarily nasty , but dismissing him as possibly haven risen to
prominence before reaching maturity as a musician .
To be a prominet classical musician today often means being damned if you do and damned if you don't . It's a no
win situation , because of those annoying Laudators Temporis Acti , or however the Latin plural goes . I don't think
I got the plural right, but you get my point .
But you can be sure that decades from now, when today's leading classical musicians are either dead or too elderly to
perform any more, people will be longing for the good old days of Lang Lang and Gustavo Dudamel, and their contemporaries
of the present day . The more things change, the more they stay the same .
The Metropolitan Opera's 2015 - 16 season will offer its usual varied operatic fare with the world's greatest singers , conductors , directors
and designers . The overall repertoire looks somewhat more conservative than usual , with no new or recent operas , but it's far from
uninteresting . There is less emphasis on 20th century operanext season than in the past several years also .
The veteran and beloved James Levine remains the Met's music director despite severe back trouble and other ailments which have
sidelined him for the past several years . But the good news is that his health seems to have improved considerably, even if he is forced
to use a motorized wheelchai in order to conduct .
There will be six new productions and a variety of other productions , some new this season . Verdi's great Otello , based on
Shakespeare's Othello will be the first new production and will open the season this September 21 st . Many consider this to be one of
the greatest of Italian operas , and it's gripping adaption of the Shakespeare play . The Latvian tenor Alexanders Antnenko will sing
the title role , and the brilliant young French -Canadian conductor Yannick Nezet-Seguin , currently music director of the Philadelphia
orchestra , will conduct .
"Elektra" , a harrowing tale of the vengeful Greek Greek princess Elektra , daughter of King Agamemnon of Trojan war fame , will be
a recent European-based production by the late French opera director Patrick Chereau , and will be conducted by the renowned
Finnish conductor and composer Esa-Pekka Salonen, currently composer in residence at the New York Philharmonic . The opera is not for the
faint-hearted , but you'll never forget it !
The 19th century French composer Georges Bizet is best known for his world famous opera Carmen , but the Met is reviving a much
less familiar opera of his after exactly 100 years ! It's "Les Pecheurs des Perles " (The Pearl Fishers ), an exotic tale of love and rivalrly
set in what is now Sri Lanka , formerly Ceylon . Anyone who enjoys Carmen should like this a lot .
"Roberto Devereaux " , by Gaetano Donizetti , is the completion of the trilogy of historical operas by the Italian composer
about Queen Elisabeth the first and her loves and rivalries . The other two , which will also be in the Met repertoire next season ,
are "Anna Bolena" (Anne Boelyn) and "Maria Stuarda ", about Mary Stuart . The late ,great Beverly Sills gave acclaimed performances of
these operas with the now unfortunately defunct New York City opera many years ago . The operas play fast and loose with the
historical facts but are so enjoyable it doesn't matter .
Puccini's "Manon Lescaut " was the composer's first successful opera , and is basically the same story as the slightly earlier French
opera by Jules Massenet called simply Manon . It's the story of a naive young French girl from the provinces who meets a dashing but
impecunious young nobleman while on the way to a convent and falls madly in love with him, with ultimately fatal results .
Finally , there is a new production of the strange and kinky opera "Lulu " by the Austrian composer Alban Berg , a pupil of Schoenberg .
The music is 12-tone but highly expressive . It's the bizarre story of an enigmatic young woman and Femme Fatale wo marries at least
three men in the course of the opera , each of whom dies in mysterious circumstances . In the last act, which was left uncompleted
by Berg at his untimely death but fisished by another composer many years later from the sketches , Lulu has become a prostitute
in London and is killed by none other than Jack the Ripper . The opera is decadent fun and qite approachable despite its atonality .
Other beoved operatic masterpieces in the repertoire next year will include Puccini's evergreen "La Boheme ", the thundering
melodrama "Tosca", and the exotic "Turandot ", set in ancient China ,also by Puccini .
Verdi's melodramatic "Il Trovatore ", hilariously pillaried by the Marx brother in the classic comedy "A Night at the Opera ",
and his sombre tragedy "Simon Boccanegra", set in medieval Genoa , will return . Placido Domingo , ,who has lately been singing baritone
roles in his 70s , will portray the doomed Doge of Genoa .
Rossini;s Scottish opera :La Donna Del Lago :(the lady of the lake) which had its Met premiere just last night , will return ,
as well as Donizetti's charming bucolic comedy "L'Elisir D'Amore " (The elixir of love ).
Wagner's "Tannhauser " , the tale of a medieval German troubador caught between his chaste love of a virtuous young
noblewoman and the wanton erotic goddess Venus , who keeps a lair in the German forest where she lures men , and goes off
to Rome to seek forgivemess from the Pope, will represent the German wing of the repertoire .
Even if you don't live anywhere near New York city , you can still experience Met performances live at movie theaters around the
country for much less than a good ticket would cost , as well as listen to the Saturday afternoon radio broadcasts which can be heard
all over America . You can stream live performances on your computer, too .
If you're planning to visit New York and have and have some free time , you can easily contact the Met's website
Metopera.org for information about tickets . There are alos plenty of DVDs of Met performances from the past available .
Attending a Met performance is a real treat ! There's absolutely nothing "stuffy or "elitist" about it . You can dress casually
and the audience has no hoity-toity rich people dressed to the nines attending for snobbish reasons . The Met audience is
made up of people who are opera fans who are just as passionate about opera as sports fans are about their home team !
And don't worry about foreign languages . You'll find a device on the seat in front of you with an English translation of the opera .
You can turn it off if you don't want it . But I definitely recommend it if you're new to opera .
In addition to being a place where you can see videos about news ,politics ,science, religion and virtually any subject in existence , as well as
pop music , Rock music , Jazz and what have you , Youtube is a fantastic way to experience classical music in all its endless varity .
You can hear recordings of music by virtually any composer of any period or nationality , ranging from ancient works written over four or
five centuries ago to recent works by contemporary composers . It's all there for you to experience at the click of a mouse !
There are also live concerts and opera performances , or individual pieces from concerts and excerpts from live opera performances .
Just put the name of any composer or perfoming musician on the youtube search engine and you can hear virtually anything you want !
If you want to hear recordings by such legendary musicians as Leonard Bernstein , Luciano Pavarotti , , Maria Callas , Aerhur
Runinstein , Vladimir Horowitz , Jascha Heifetz , Mstislav Rostropovich , Pablo Casals , Leopold Stokowski and others , their
recordings and in some cases live performances are right at your fingertips .
You can also see complete live performances of a wide variety of operas taken from such great opera houses as the Metropolitan opera ,
La Scala ,Milan, the Royal opera of London , the Paris opera , the Berlin State opera , the Vienna State opera , the Bayreuth Wagner festival
the Bavarian State opera in Munich , and elsewhere . You can hear legendary singers from the past such as Enrico Caruso ,
Feodor Chaliapin , Rosa Ponselle , Kirsten Flagstad ,Lauritz Melchior and others sing arias and other operatic excerpts on old recordings .
You can also sinteresting documentaries on such great composers as Wagner, Verdi , Beethoven and others .
Many of the world's greatest orchestras, such as the Berlin Philharmonic, the London symphony , the Royal concertgebouw orchestra of
Amsterdam , the Boston symphony and the New York Philharmonic and others have their own youtube channels .
Each video usually shows the performers of the recording , conductor, orchestra , record label etc, so if you hear a recording you
really like , you can get it from amazon.com or other websites . The sound may not be quite as good as on a CD you purchase, ,
but it's good enough .
Some of the classical music channels you can subscribe to on youtube are Addio BelPassato , Composer Corner , Goodman Musica, Il
Gruppo Di Docci , Unsung Masterworks , Classical Vault , 1 or 2 , IN Contrario Motu , to name only a few .
You can also e mail these performances to anyone or send them to facebook or twitter . If you register with youtube, you can leave
comments on any video on the site unless youssee the comments are closed sign . You will also receive replies to your comments .
Well, what are you waiting for ?
I didn't see last Sunday's Grammy Awards on television last Sunday as I was busy with other matters . But as a classical musician I'm always
curious to find out the winners in the classical recordings category . Among these were a recent CD of the atmospheric orchestral piece
"City Noir " , which evokes the dark and seemy film noir underworld of Los Angeles , with David Robertson and the St Louis
symphony , and "Become Ocean , " by John Luther Adams (no relation ) , which seeks to portray a world in which global warming has caused
sea levels to cover the earth , with Ludovic Morlot and the Seattle symphony .
The venerable if highly controversial French composer and conductor Pierre Boulez, who turns 90 in March and who has won a number
of Grammy awards , received a lifetime achievement award for his long and distinguished career .
But unfortunately , these classical Grammy awards rceived short shrift on television . They apparently did not even appear on the show
as they had many times in the past and were announced off air before the show . The days when the classical awards actually
appeared on the show and were announced by renowned classical musicians seem to be gone . This appears to be part of the
overall marginalization of classical music in America . Decades ago , renowned classical musicians such as Leonard Bernstein and others
actually appeared on the cover of Time magazine ; today , this would be extremely unlikely .
How and why did this happen ? There are no clear cut answers . Those in charge in the Grammy awards and television executives
seem to think that classical music just doesn't sell in America . Is there any way to reverse this pernicious trend and make classical
music more visible to the overall public in America ? Who knows ? But we've got to hope so .
The world of classical music was stunned by a bombshell this morning when the New York Philharmonic announced that its current music
director Alan Gilbert , 47 , will leave his prestigious but extremely demanding position as its music director at the end of the 2016-17 season .
Gilbert began his tenure with the orchestra in 2009 , after some years at the head of the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic in Sweden and
the Santa Fe Summer opera festival in New Mexico , as well as conducting many of the foremost orchestras of Europe and America as
The Juilliard trained Gilbert is the son of two violinists in the orchestra , his Japanese born mother still being a member . He came to
the orchestra to succeed the late Lorin Maazel , who passed away last year at the age of 84 . Gilbert was something of a dark horse
in the search for a conductor to take over after Maazel ; he had already had a distinguished conducting career but was not as high profile
as many of the potential candidates .
The Philharmonic administration hoped he would bring youthful brilliance and innovative programming to the orchestra , which had
however already played a wide variety of new music under previous music directors and guest conductors over the years .
Gilbert proved to be a staunch champion of new music by a wide variety of contemporary composers of varying nationalities and
compositional styles , In addition , he championed works by lesser known but outstanding composers .
Gilbert initiated bold projects such as a concert performance of the phantasmagorical surrealistic opera "Le Grande Macabre ", by the
late Hungarian composer Gyorgy Ligeti and concerts of unusual repertoire at the Armory in Manhattan . There was also a musical
Biennale , a festival of contemporary music comparable to the Biennales for art in Venice , to name only some of the adventurous
projects initiated by Gilbert . Of course, the orchestra continued to perform the beloved staples of the orchestral repertoire by Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninov et al . But no one could accuse the orchestra of sticking exclusively to the
tried and true .
Critical reaction to Gilbert's performances has been favorable on the whole, but there were always musical snipers who complained
about this or that , finding fault with his performances for this or that reason . This comes with the job in any major orchestra .
Being music director of the New York Philharmonic is probably one of the most thankless jobs in classical music .
Eminent conductors such as Leonard Bernstein , Pierre Boulez , Zubin Mehta, Kurt Masur , Lorin Maazel and others have been
subject to constant critical drubbing for this or that reason . Interpretive style, choice of repertoire , you name it .
It's impossible to please everyone .
In just one day , there has already been considerable speculation on on possible conductors to replace Gilbert . It won't be an
easy task by any means , and never is with a major orchestra . Some conductors might be a good choice , but have taken up other prestigious
posts with other orchestras , and it;s unrealistic to expect them to be lured to New York so early into there tenures elsewhere .
Other conductors might be either too old to have the vigor to take up such a great responsibility so late in their careers, and others
are too young and inexperienced , as talented as they are . Thre has even been talk about appointing a woman conductor,
which would be unprecedented for one of the so-called "big five " orchestras in America (New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Boston , Cleveland ).
And of course, it must not be a conductor who has never appeared as guest , because this would be like getting married to
someone you had never met . The orchestra will not stand for a conductor it does not like and respect musically .
Gilbert has decided to step down before the scheduled renovation of Avery Fisher hall in Lincoln Center, formerly known
as Philharmonic hall , which has been plagued by problematic acoustics since its opening in 1962 . This is tentatively scheduled to begin in
2018 , and the Philharmonic will have to find temporary residence somewhere else in New York .
There is no way to know now who the next music director will be . But the search will be as interesting as it is difficult . Let's all hope for the
A kind of musical mystique surrounds the chamber ensemble known as the string quartet - two violins, one viola, a cello . It's one of the most
rarified and esoteric genres of classical music , not something as immediately appealing and colorful as opera or orchestral music ,
but something which is highly rewarding to listen to if you give it a chance .
Of course, there are various other combinations of instruments in chamber music , such as the piano trio , consisting of violin, cello and piano ,
quintets with a string quartet and a piano , etc , woodwind quintets, consisting of a flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and french horn ,
brass quintets , consisting of two trumpets , one horn, two trombones , or one trombone and a tuba , and various miscellaneous ensembles
mixing strings, woodwinds and brass , amd others . But for some reason, the string quartet has been one of the most prestigious
musical genres , and many of the greatest composers have written them , including Haydn, founder of the form , Mozart,
Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms , Dvorak , Tchaikovsky , Mendelssohm , Smetana , Bela Bartok, Shostakovich , Charles Ives ,
Elliott Carter , and others have written memorable ones .
Haydn wrote about 80 of them , , and Beethoven 16 . These, particularly the late ones, are considered to be some of Beethoven's most
personal and profound works . A symphony might be said to reflect a composer's public proclamations, but a string quartet is reserved for his
most intimate and private thoughts .
In the 18th and early 19th centuries , the structure of a typical string quartet is very similar to that of a symphony ; four movements ,
sometimes with a slow introduction to a relatively lively first movement in sonata form , a dignified slow movement , a lively minuet for the 3,
and a vivacious finale which is also in sonata form .
Beethoven, in the sublime and rather enigmatic late quartets he wrote not too long before his death in 1827 , experimented with unorthodox
structures, such as his radical 14th which consists of seven movements played without a break .
Some of the most notable string quartets of the 19th century are those byBrahms , Dvorak , Thaikovsky , the Belgian Cesar Franck ,
and the Czech Bedrich Smetama, best known for his comic opera "The Bartred Bride ".
Yje 20th century is particularly rich in string quartets , some of the most notable being the six of the great Hungarian Bela Bartok
(1881 - 1945) , and the 15 of Dmitri Shostakovich . Those of Bartok are steeped in the influence of the folk music of Bartok's native
Humgar They are highly pungent and spiky harmonically , though not unpleasant, and may take repeated hearings to grasp .
Those of Shostakovich are brooding commentaries on the grim life inside the formewr Soviet Union and the horrors of the senond
world war . They are extremely intense and even harrowing at times .
IN America , the late Elliott Carter (908 - 2012 ) wrote five highly complex and abstract quartets which are truly challenging to the
listener and definitely not for newcomers to classical music . They are some of the most thorny and uncompromising music you will
ever hear .
Among the most famous string quartet ensembles , active and defunct are the Emerson quartet , the Juilliard quartet,consisting of
string faculty members of the Juilliard faculty , the Budapest quartet , the Amadeus quartet , the Tokyo quartet,
theGuarnieri quartet , to name only some . There is a welath of recordings of string quartet repertoire on CD , and a good place
to order them online is arkivmusic.com, which specializes in classical CDs and DVDs and has a fantastic selection overall .
The modern day symphony orchestra , which resides in a concert hall all year around except for touring , and which plays a different program
every week from approximately September until May or June with a music director (its chief conductor) and a variety of guest conductors , bears
little resemblance to the early orchestras which existed in the 18th century when Mozart and Haydn lived .
Both consist of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion , but the orchestras of the 18th century were much smaller ,often consisting of only
about 20 to 40 musicians , although larger ones were used on occaision when more musicians were available . In addition to the strings, which
which were fewer in number than a modern orchestra , the woodwinds usually consisted of pairs of woodwinds, flutes, oboes , and bassoons .
The clarinet did not come into existence until relatively late in the 18th century, and Mozart was the first major composer to use them .
The brass consisted of two horns and two trumpets ; Trombones did not make their appearance in the orchestra until Beethoven's 5th
symphony in the early 19th symphony . The tuba ws not invented until well into the 19th century .
5th also . Beethoven also introduced the piccolo and the cavernous-sounding contrabassoon in the 5th symphony .
There were tympani , , but the only well known 18th century symphony to use other percussion instrumentssymphony of Haydn ,
no 100 in his catalogue of 104 !
In the 19th century , many orchestras were ad hoc groups assembled by composers such as Mozart to perform their music . Others were
supported privately by th aristocracy for private perfornaces , such as the one which Haydn had at his disposal as Kappelmeister(music
director ) for the music loving Hungarian count Eszterhazy on his remote family estate .
In the 19th century , some orhestras of opera companies, such as the Vienna Court opera , now the Vienna State opera , formed concert
orchestras for public concerts . The most famous of these is the great Vienna Philharmonic, which still consists of members of the Vienna St
opera orchestra .
In the 19th centtury , with the advent of great composers of the Romantic period such as Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky , Bruckner and
others , the size of the orchestra grew . Four rather than two horns became the norm, and the use of three or even four trumpets became
a regular feature of the brass section . The piccolo became more common , as well as the English horn, amd the bass clarinet was now used .
In addition to the usual tymapny, cymbals, snare and bass drum and other percussion instruments were no longer rarities , and the size of
the string section grew . Public concerts were now the norm with a resident orchestra in a given city .
QWith the adven of the 20th century and great composers such as Mahler, Richard Strauss and others , normous orchestras were sometimes
used , with a hundred or more musicians . The sizze of the brass section sometimes grew to eight horns, or six, four or even more trumpets,
dfour trombones and even two tubas , with woodwinds now quadrupled or even quintupled, and a wide variety of different percussion
instruments, and a huge string section . Exotic instruments such as the Heckelphone, a kind of baritone oboe even lower in pitch than
the English horn, Wagner tubas, which had been invented by Wagner for his Ring operas were sometimes used . In a section of eight horns,
horns 5-8 would periodically switch to the Wagner tubas , which are a sort of cross between a tuba and a French horn .
By the 1040s , composers such as the mystical Frenchman Olivier Messiaen (1908 - 1992 ) began to use electronic instruments in the
weird-sounding , unearthly Ondes Martenot and others .
Nowadays , orchestras play a wider variety of repertoire than ever before ; the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart are still very much with us ,
and orchestras sometimes perform the music of such baroque greats as Bach and Handel, although period instrument groups seem to
be coming closer to a monopoly on this repertoire .
The mumber of orchestras in Europe, America and elsewhere also increased greatly over the years . There are now thouands of them, not
only in Europe and America , but all over Asia , in Japan, South Korea , China , Australia , and every continent except for Antarctica !
The core repertoire of belove masterpieces by Beethoven, Schubert,Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky ,
Berlioz, Debussy, etc is the meat of the repertoire , but many interesting long neglected works have been revived , and music by such 20th
century masters as Stravinsky , Shostakovich , Prokofiev, Bartok , Copland , Samuel Barber , Sibelius , Ravel , and others is quite popular .
Despite the usual compalints , there is absolutely no lack of new or recent works by the likes of John Adams, Philip Glass, William Bolcom,
Thomas Ades, (ad-ess), Hans Werner Henze, Peter Maxwel Davies, Tan Dun, ( a native of china living in New York) , Jennifer
Higdon , Kaaia Saariaho (both women ) , and many other contemporary composers . (Henze died a few years ago but his music is stillwidely
In the course of any given season , a major orchestra will play an enormous varitey of repertoire . The symphony orchesta has been
evolving for nearly 300 years , and there is no sign that is is in any way stagnant or irrelevant . Who knows what the future will bring for it ?
More Posts Next page »